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  • Author or Editor: Rebecca C. McOnie x
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OBJECTIVE To determine factors affecting race speed in Swedish Standardbred horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath (CFS), to investigate whether preoperative racing speed was associated with specific intraoperative findings and whether horses returned to racing, and to compare the performance of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS with that of age- and sex-matched control horses.

ANIMALS 149 Swedish Standardbred trotters undergoing surgery of the CFS and 274 age- and sex-matched control horses.

PROCEDURES Medical records of CFS horses were examined. Racing data for CFS and control horses were retrieved from official online records. Generalizing estimating equations were used to examine overall and presurgery racing speeds and the association of preoperative clinical and intraoperative findings with preoperative and postoperative speeds. Multivariable regression analysis was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare career longevity between CFS and control horses.

RESULTS CFS horses were significantly faster than control horses. The CFS horses that raced before surgery were slower as they approached the surgery date, but race speed increased after surgery. There were 124 of 137 (90.5%) CFS horses that raced after surgery. No intrathecal pathological findings were significantly associated with preoperative racing speed. Career longevity did not differ between CFS and control horses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses undergoing surgery of the CFS had a good prognosis to return to racing after surgery. Racing careers of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS were not significantly different from racing careers of control horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Urolithiasis is the most common cause of urinary tract disease in small ruminants and has significant economic and production impacts worldwide. Urolithiasis is multifactorial in origin and generally begins with the formation of cystoliths followed by urethral obstruction. The condition is most common in males. Clinical signs are variable depending on the severity of the obstruction. Uroliths can be calcium, struvite, or silicate based; however, struvite and amorphous magnesium calcium phosphate are the most common urolith types observed in small ruminants. Although urethral process (vermiform appendage) amputation is widely considered the first line of treatment, reobstruction is common within the first 36 hours. Surgical interventions such as temporary tube cystostomy, perineal urethrostomy (PU), modified proximal perineal urethrostomy, vesico-preputial anastomosis (VPA), and urinary bladder marsupialization (BM) are reported to carry an improved prognosis for long-term survival. PU carries a lower proportion of long-term success (> 12-month survival time) when compared with VPA and BM. Stoma stricture and urine scald are the most commonly observed surgical complications. Currently, the literature provides minimal direction for clinician decision-making in managing these cases while accounting for patient history, client financial ability, composition of calculi, and potential treatment complications. Small ruminant urinary obstructions are challenging and complicated conditions to treat, due to their multifactorial etiology, ruminant urogenital anatomy, and the variety of imperfect treatment options available. The purpose of this article this article is to provide veterinary practitioners with decision trees to guide management and treatment of urolithiasis in small ruminants.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To test whether the use of low-dose epidural anesthesia (EA) in goats undergoing lower urinary tract surgery reduces the requirements of perioperative analgesics, contributes to intraoperative hypotension, and improves postoperative comfort during the first 24 hours after surgery.


Retrospective analysis of 38 goats between January 2019 and July 2022.


Goats were divided into 2 groups (EA or no EA). Demographic characteristics, surgical procedure, time of anesthesia, and anesthetic agents used were compared between treatment groups. Outcome variables potentially related to the use of EA included dose of inhalational anesthetics, incidence of hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 60 mm Hg), intraoperative and postoperative administration of morphine, and time to first meal after surgery.


EA (n = 21) consisted of bupivacaine or ropivacaine 0.1% to 0.2% with an opioid. There were no differences between groups except for age (EA group was younger). Less inhalational anesthetic (P = .03) and less intraoperative morphine (P = .008) were used in the EA group. The incidence of hypotension was 52% for EA and 58% for no EA (P = .691). Administration of postoperative morphine was not different between groups (EA, 67%, and no EA, 53%; P = .686). Time to first meal was 7.5 hours (3 to 18 hours) for EA and 11 hours (2 to 24 hours) for no EA (P = .057).


Low-dose EA reduced the use of intraoperative anesthetics/analgesics in goats undergoing lower urinary tract surgery without an increased incidence of hypotension. Postoperative morphine administration was not reduced.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association