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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the repeatability of infrared thermometer temperature readings and evaluate the correlation between digital rectal temperature and infrared thermometer temperatures taken at different locations in healthy afebrile horses.

ANIMALS

101 afebrile horses ≥ 1 year old.

METHODS

Digital rectal temperatures and infrared temperatures from the eye, gingiva, neck, axilla, and perineum were obtained in a climate-controlled environment and at 2 outdoor ambient temperatures (study period, November 1, 2021, to April 30, 2023).

RESULTS

Infrared temperature measurements were well tolerated by horses, including those resistant to rectal temperature. There was significant correlation between rectal temperature and infrared temperature taken at the perineum (R = 0.57; P < .001) and eye (R = 0.37; P < .001). Infrared temperature measurements were highly repeatable, allowing for calculation of reference ranges for the perineum (36.0 to 37.8 °C) and eye (35.7 to 37.1 °C) in climate-controlled conditions. There was increased variance in outside temperatures compared to climate-controlled conditions for the eye (P = .002), gingiva (P = .047), and perineum (P = .005).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

While infrared thermometer temperatures were not numerically the same as rectal temperature using a digital thermometer, measurements at the perineum and eye were correlated with rectal temperature readings. Further, the repeatability of infrared readings allows for computation of reference ranges that make the infrared thermometer a viable alternative for the practicing veterinarian when obtaining a temperature in uncooperative horses. The infrared thermometer was reliable outdoors for the eye, but not the perineum. Additional validation of infrared temperature reference ranges in febrile horses and warmer ambient temperatures is warranted.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of the cyclooxygenase-2–selective NSAID firocoxib, compared to the nonselective NSAID flunixin meglumine on viscoelastic coagulation parameters in healthy horses.

ANIMALS

12 healthy adult mixed-breed horses.

PROCEDURES

Following a crossover protocol, horses were administered flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h for 5 days), allowed a 6-month washout period, and then administered firocoxib (0.3 mg/kg, PO, once, then 0.1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 4 days). Omeprazole (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) was administered concurrently with each NSAID. Viscoelastic coagulation profiles and traditional coagulation parameters (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen) were measured before and after each treatment.

RESULTS

Viscoelastic coagulation parameters were within reference intervals before and after both treatments. There was a statistically significant difference between treatments for amplitude at 10 minutes after clot time (P = .02) and maximum clot formation (P = .02); however, the magnitude of change was not clinically significant.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Short-term administration of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib did not result in significant alteration of viscoelastic coagulation profiles in healthy horses. However, clinicians should be aware of possible coagulopathy secondary to NSAID administration with long-term use or critical illness, and further study is indicated.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Determine the effect of sample holding time and single sample reuse on viscoelastic coagulation parameters when using fresh equine native whole blood.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult horses from a university teaching herd.

PROCEDURES

Blood collected by direct jugular venipuncture (18 ga needle, 3 mL syringe) was held at 37 °C for 2, 4, 6, or 8 minutes according to 1 of 2 protocols. Syringes were gently inverted twice, a small amount of blood was expressed, testing cartridges were filled, and placed within the VCM-Vet™ device (Entegrion Inc). Protocol A: samples were processed from a single syringe. Protocol B: 4 syringes were drawn through a single needle. VCM-Vet™ measures assessed included clot time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), alpha angle (AA), amplitude at 10/20 minutes (A10/A20), maximal clot firmness (MCF), and lysis index at 30/45 minutes (LI30/LI45). Differences over time were examined using the Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test with Bonferroni correction, P ≤ .05.

RESULTS

Following Protocol A, there was a significant effect of holding time for CT (P = .02), CFT (P = .04), and AA (P = .05). CT and AA decreased over time, while CFT increased. Samples handled by Protocol B showed no significant difference over time for any of the VCM-Vet™ parameters.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Sample holding time and handling protocol impact VCM-Vet™ testing results of fresh equine native whole blood. Viscoelastic coagulation samples tested using the VCM-Vet™ may be held unagitated for up to 8 minutes after collection while warm, but should not be reused.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research