Objective—To evaluate a bench-top coagulation analyzer for determination of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen concentration in healthy dogs.
Animals—55 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—PT, APTT, and fibrinogen concentration were determined by use of the coagulation analyzer. Values were compared with results obtained independently by a conventional laboratory.
Results—Correlations (with 95% confidence intervals) between the coagulation analyzer and conventional laboratory values were 0.760 (0.610 to 0.857), 0.700 (0.448 to 0.721), and 0.896 (0.878 to 0.918) for PT, APTT, and fibrinogen concentration, respectively. Using linear regression, comparison of data from the coagulation analyzer and the conventional laboratory provided equations relating the coagulation analyzer values with values from the conventional laboratory and suggested that APTT and fibrinogen values from the coagulation analyzer and conventional laboratory were approximately the same within expected random variation. Prothrombin time values for the coagulation analyzer were significantly offset from the PT values for the conventional laboratory but still were correlated reasonably well with the conventional laboratory values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of the mechanical method of analysis, fibrinogen concentrations obtained with a bench-top coagulation analyzer correlated well with results for a conventional laboratory, indicating that the coagulation analyzer is a reliable instrument for determination of this coagulation variable. Coagulation analyzer results for PT and APTT correlated less strongly with those for the conventional laboratory, but they would still be considered clinically reliable.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2 methods of surveying free-roaming cats (Felis catus) and identify factors potentially associated with the presence of such cats in a mixed-urban environment.
ANIMALS Free-roaming cats on and near The Ohio State University campus.
PROCEDURES The university campus and surrounding areas were divided into zones classified by land-use category; 100 zones were selected for surveillance of free-roaming cats by the line-transect method (with visual observation). Twenty-three of the 100 zones were selected for surveillance by the trail-camera method (motion-triggered still photography). Food resources in the study site were mapped, and the presence of other animal species was recorded with trail cameras. Potential associations between the number of cat sightings and variables of interest were assessed by statistical methods,
RESULTS There were 6 cat sightings in 5 zones and 92 cat sightings in 9 zones with the line-transect and trail-camera methods, respectively. Cats were most frequently detected off campus and in urban land-use zones. The number of cat sightings with trail cameras was significantly correlated with the density of food resources but not wildlife sightings in the area and was significantly greater at night than during the day.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The number of sightings with the trail-camera method was substantially higher than that obtained with the line-transect method; however, identification of individual cats was generally not possible, and population size could not be estimated with these methods. Communities considering population control for free-roaming cats should consider the use of trail cameras to identify areas with high free-roaming cat activity and observation at night to gather baseline data. Easily accessible food waste may attract free-roaming cats.
OBJECTIVE To assess the discriminatory value for corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase (CiALP) activity and other variables that can be measured routinely on a CBC and biochemical analysis for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.
SAMPLE Medical records of 57 dogs with confirmed hypoadrenocorticism and 57 control dogs in which hypoadrenocorticism was suspected but ruled out.
PROCEDURES A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Dogs were included if a CBC and complete biochemical analysis had been performed. Dogs with iatrogenic hypoadrenocorticism and dogs treated previously with glucocorticoids were excluded. Cortisol concentration for dogs with hypoadrenocorticism was ≤ 2 μg/dL both before and after ACTH administration. Cortisol concentration for control dogs was > 4 μg/dL before or after ACTH administration.
RESULTS Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for CiALP activity was low (0.646; 95% confidence interval, 0.494 to 0.798). Area under the ROC curve for a model that combined the CiALP activity, Na-to-K ratio, eosinophil count, activity of creatine kinase, and concentrations of SUN and albumin was high (0.994; 95% confidence interval, 0.982 to 1.000). Results for this model could be used to correctly classify all dogs, except for 1 dog with hypoadrenocorticism and no electrolyte abnormalities.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CiALP activity alone cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. Combined results for CiALP activity, Na-to-K ratio, eosinophil count, creatine kinase activity, and concentrations of SUN and albumin provided an excellent means to discriminate between hypoadrenocorticism and diseases that mimic hypoadrenocorticism.
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent of environmental exposure to heteroxenous coccidia from wild canid feces in southeastern Ohio.
SAMPLE 285 presumed wild canid fecal samples collected across an ecological system in southeastern Ohio.
PROCEDURES Morphological classification and molecular analysis were used to determine the canid genus for collected fecal samples. Microscopic and molecular analysis were used to detect coccidian oocysts and DNA. Several variables were analyzed for associations with coccidian DNA detection or prevalence.
RESULTS Coccidian DNA was detected in 51 of 285 (17.9%) fecal samples. Of those positive samples, 1% (95% confidence interval, 0.4% to 3%) had positive results for Hammondia heydorni and none had positive results for Neospora caninum, for an estimated environmental N caninum prevalence of 0% (95% confidence interval, 0% to 7%)/1-km2 hexagonal area evaluated. Morphological classification revealed that 78.9% (225/285) of fecal samples were from coyotes and 17.2% (49/285) were from foxes. No difference in proportions of coccidian DNA-positive fecal samples was identified among canid species. Environmental temperature and fecal freshness were associated with coccidian DNA detection. Land use type, relative canid density, and cattle density were not associated with the prevalence of coccidian DNA-positive samples.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The low prevalence of coccidia shed in wild canid feces in this study, including the estimated 0% environmental prevalence of N caninum, suggested that the role of the oocyst environmental phase in coccidia transmission to ruminants is likely minor in rural southeastern Ohio.