Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Rebecca A. Smith x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effects of diet-induced weight gain on glucose and insulin dynamics and plasma hormone and lipid concentrations in horses.

Animals—13 adult geldings.

Procedures—Horses were fed 200% of their digestible energy requirements for maintenance for 16 weeks to induce weight gain. Frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after weight gain to evaluate glucose and insulin dynamics. Adiposity (assessed via condition scoring, morphometric measurements, and subcutaneous fat depth) and plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and leptin were measured on a weekly or biweekly basis.

Results—Mean ± SD body weight increased by 20% from 440 ± 44 kg to 526 ± 53 kg, and body condition score (scale, 1 to 9) increased from 6 ± 1to8 ± 1. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were similar before and after weight gain. Leptin and insulin concentrations increased with weight gain. Mean ± SD insulin sensitivity decreased by 71 ± 28%, accompanied by a 408 ± 201% increase in acute insulin response to glucose, which resulted in similar disposition index before and after weight gain.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diet-induced weight gain in horses occurred concurrently with decreased insulin sensitivity that was effectively compensated for by an increase in insulin secretory response. Obesity resulted in hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, compared with baseline values, but no changes in lipid concentrations were apparent. Preventing obesity is a potential strategy to help avoid insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To compare glucose concentrations in peripheral venous and capillary blood samples collected from dogs before and after consumption of a meal and measured with a veterinary-specific portable blood glucose meter (PBGM).


12 dogs (96 blood samples).


A veterinary-specific PBGM was used to measure blood glucose concentrations. Glucose concentrations in capillary blood samples obtained from the carpal pad, medial aspect of a pinna, and oral mucosa were compared with glucose concentrations in blood samples obtained from a lateral saphenous vein. Samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours and again 2 hours after consumption of a meal.


Location of capillary blood collection had a significant effect on glucose concentrations measured with the PBGM. Glucose concentration in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna did not differ significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples, whereas glucose concentrations in blood samples collected from the carpal pad and oral mucosa differed significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples. There was no significant difference between preprandial and postprandial blood glucose concentrations.


Glucose concentrations in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna of dogs better reflected glucose concentrations in venous blood than concentrations measured in capillary blood collected from the carpal pad or oral mucosa.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the prevalence of biofilm formation under long-term cell culture conditions in serum samples of dairy cattle, goats, cats, and dogs, and to determine whether there is an association between nanobacteria and biofilm formation.

Sample Population—Serum samples of clinically normal animals (313 dairy cattle, 48 goats, 140 dogs, and 44 cats) and animals with various medical conditions (60 dogs and 116 cats).

Procedure—Serum was incubated under cell culture conditions and observed for biofilm formation by use of light microscopy, electron microscopy, and spectroscopy. A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to identify 16S rRNA gene sequences of nanobacteria.

Results—Biofilm formation developed in serum samples of 304 of 313 (97%) cattle, 44 of 48 (92%) goats, 44 of 44 (100%) cats, and 126 of 140 (90%) dogs. Prevalence of serum samples with positive results for biofilm formation was not significantly different between cats or dogs with and without medical conditions associated with pathologic extraskeletal calcification processes. Scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopy of biofilm samples revealed small coccoid particles consisting mainly of calcium and phosphate. Polymerase chain reaction assay failed to amplify sequences of nanobacteria.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under longterm cell culture conditions, biofilm made up of aggregates of calcium and phosphate crystals does form in serum samples of clinically normal dairy cattle, goats, cats, and dogs. Disease, however, does not predispose to biofilm formation in serum samples of dogs and cats. Our findings did not support the existence of nanobacteria in serum samples of cattle, goats, cats, and dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:176–182)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine the effect of local anesthesia of the palmar digital nerves on forelimb kinematics in Quarter Horses with and without navicular disease.


12 adult Quarter Horses; 5 clinically normal (sound) and 7 with navicular disease.


Kinematic measurements were made on adult horses trotting on a treadmill, before and after palmar digital nerve block (PDNB). Twenty-three displacement, joint angle, and temporal gait measurements of the right forelimb and head were made for 5 strides in each horse. Initial (before local anesthesia) right forelimb measurements were obtained after a left forelimb PDNB. Kinematic measurements were compared before and after PDNB of the right forelimb by multiple ANOVA with an α = 0.05, adjusted for posthoc comparisons by Bonferroni correction.


In sound horses, the only significant change in kinematic measurements after PDNB nerve block was in the maximum extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint at mid-stance, which was decreased by an angle of 2°. In horses with navicular disease, mean maximum extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint during stance phase and maximum flexion of the carpal joint during swing phase were significantly increased after PDNB. Also, total stance phase, cranial stance phase, and breakover durations were significantly shorter. In horses with navicular disease, differences between minimum head heights during stance phase of each forelimb and total vertical head excursion during a complete stride were significantly smaller after PDNB.


Several kinematic measurements of gait can be used to determine improvement of lameness in horses with navicular disease after PDNB block while trotting on a treadmill. (Am J Vet Res 1997; 58:218–223)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research