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Objective—To determine the association between lymph node size and metastasis and to assess measurement of lymph node size as an accurate and reliable means of tumor staging in dogs with oral malignant melanoma.
Animals—100 dogs with histologically confirmed oral malignant melanoma.
Procedure—Clinical records for dogs with oral malignant melanoma were reviewed. Data regarding size and results of cytologic or histologic examination of lymph nodes were evaluated. The association between lymph node size and metastasis was determined.
Results—Forty-seven (47%) dogs, of which 23 (49%) had enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, had no cytologic or histologic evidence of metastasis. Of 53 (53%) dogs with cytologic or histologic evidence of mandibular lymph node metastasis, 37 (70%) had enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, and 16 (30%) had mandibular lymph nodes of normal size. Overall, 16 of the 40 (40%) dogs with normal-sized lymph nodes had microscopic evidence of metastatic disease. Sensitivity and specificity of lymph node size as a predictor of metastasis were 70 and 51%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 62 and 60%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although a significant relationship was identified between lymph node size and metastasis to the lymph node, this association did not appear strong enough to be clinically relevant. Results suggest that lymph node size alone is insufficient for accurate clinical staging of oral malignant melanoma in dogs; cytologic or histologic examination of regional lymph nodes should routinely be performed, regardless of size of those nodes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1234–1236)
Objective—To characterize the intracranial pressure-volume relationship (ICPVR) in dogs by use of an acute frontal-parietal mass lesion model.
Animals—7 healthy adult female Beagles.
Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane to achieve a surgical plane of anesthesia. A fiberoptic intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor was inserted to a depth of 1 cm in the parenchyma of the right frontal-parietal region of the brain. A Foley balloon-tipped catheter was placed in the epidural space of the left frontal-parietal area through a separate 1-cm burr hole. Baseline measurements were obtained with the balloon deflated. The balloon was then inflated incrementally with 0.5 mL of 0.9% NaCl solution every 10 minutes until ICP exceeded mean arterial blood pressure. Nonlinear regression analysis with 2-factor and 3-factor exponential equations was used to characterize the ICPVR.
Results—The mean baseline ICP was 11 mm Hg, with a 95% confidence interval of 2 to 20 mm Hg. The ICPVR was well characterized by 2-factor or 3-factor exponential equations for all dogs (R 2 > 0.93). Balloon volumes of > 1. 2 mL were associated with ICP > 20 mm Hg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Characterization of the ICPVR may provide clinically useful information regarding the safety of obtaining CSF from the atlanto-occipital space or implantation of brachytherapy catheters and for determining the need for decompressive craniectomy in dogs with acute intracranial disease. High ICP should be suspected in dogs that have an acute frontal-parietal mass lesion estimated to exceed 2% of the brain volume.
Objective—To evaluate a technique for minimally invasive excisional brain biopsy and intracranial brachytherapy catheter placement in dogs.
Animals—5 healthy adult female dogs.
Procedures—Computed tomographic guidance was used to plan a biopsy trajectory to a selected area of brain with reference to a localizer grid. The procedure was performed through a 1-cm skin incision and 6-mm burr hole by use of a 9-gauge biopsy device. Five cylindrical samples (3 to 4 mm in diameter and 7 to 12 mm in length) were removed over 5 cycles of the vacuum-assisted tissue excision system, leaving approximately a 2-cm3 resection cavity. A balloon-tipped intracranial brachytherapy catheter was placed through the burr hole into the resection cavity, expanded with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, and explanted 7 days later.
Results—4 of 5 dogs survived the procedure. The fifth died because of iatrogenic brain damage. Neurologic deficits were unilateral and focal. Twenty-four hours after surgery, all surviving dogs were ambulatory, 2 dogs exhibited ipsiversive circling, 4 had contralateral proprioceptive deficits, 3 had contralateral menace response deficits, 2 had a reduced contralateral response to noxious nasal stimulation, and 1 had dull mentation with intermittent horizontal nystagmus and ventrolateral strabismus. Neurologic status improved throughout the study period. Histologic quality of biopsy specimens was excellent.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This technique enabled histologic diagnosis from high-quality biopsy specimens obtained through a minimally invasive technique and has potential applications for multimodal treatment of deep brain tumors in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures on the biomechanical behavior of the C5-C6 vertebral motion unit (VMU) in dogs.
SAMPLE 14 vertebral columns (C4 through C7) from canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Specimens were assigned to a conventional or slanted ventral slot group (n = 7/group). For each specimen, the C5-C6 VMU was tested in ventral and dorsal bending and positive and negative axial torsion before and after surgery. Range of motion (ROM), stiffness, and energy absorption were compared between the 2 groups.
RESULTS Both procedures significantly increased the ROM and stiffness and significantly decreased the energy absorption of the C5-C6 VMU in ventral and dorsal bending. Both procedures also increased the ROM in positive and negative axial torsion. In negative torsion, total stiffness and stiffness over the maximum ROM tested decreased less for the slanted slot procedure than for the conventional slot procedure. There were no significant differences between procedures for any of the other biomechanical outcomes examined.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the biomechanical response of the C5-C6 VMU to the conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures was not significantly different, especially when considering postsurgical instability induced by both procedures. This was most likely due to disruption of the nucleus pulposus and dorsal annulus fibrosus of the disk with both procedures. On the basis of these findings, neither procedure appeared biomechanically superior. Comparative clinical studies are warranted to further evaluate the 2 procedures.
To assess the effect of oral cannabidiol (CBD) administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.
Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial.
26 client-owned dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy.
Dogs were randomly assigned to a CBD (n = 12) or placebo (14) group. The CBD group received CBD-infused oil (2.5 mg/kg [1.1 mg/lb], PO) twice daily for 12 weeks in addition to existing antiepileptic treatments, and the placebo group received noninfused oil under the same conditions. Seizure activity, adverse effects, and plasma CBD concentrations were compared between groups.
2 dogs in the CBD group developed ataxia and were withdrawn from the study. After other exclusions, 9 dogs in the CBD group and 7 in the placebo group were included in the analysis. Dogs in the CBD group had a significant (median change, 33%) reduction in seizure frequency, compared with the placebo group. However, the proportion of dogs considered responders to treatment (≥ 50% decrease in seizure activity) was similar between groups. Plasma CBD concentrations were correlated with reduction in seizure frequency. Dogs in the CBD group had a significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity. No adverse behavioral effects were reported by owners.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Although a significant reduction in seizure frequency was achieved for dogs in the CBD group, the proportion of responders was similar between groups. Given the correlation between plasma CBD concentration and seizure frequency, additional research is warranted to determine whether a higher dosage of CBD would be effective in reducing seizure activity by ≥ 50%.
To determine the most common indications for cranial surgery and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of complications and death in the perioperative period following cranial surgery.
150 dogs and 15 cats.
For this multi-institutional retrospective case series, medical records of dogs and cats that underwent cranial surgery at any of the 4 participating institutions between 1995 and 2016 were reviewed. Variables were evaluated included species, sex, age, neurolocalization, history of preoperative seizures, surgical approach, histological results, perioperative complications, and outcome. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess for risk factors for complications.
The most common neurolocalization was the forebrain (110/165 [66.7%]), with 94 (57.0%) animals having had seizures preoperatively. The rostrotentorial (116/165 [70.3%]) and caudotentorial (32/165 [19.4%]) surgical approaches were most commonly reported. The most common indication was the treatment of meningioma (75/142 [52.8%]). Complications arose in 58 of the 165 (35.2%) cases within 24 hours and in 86 (52.1%) cases 1 to 10 days postoperatively. Perioperative complications included hypotension (38/165 [23.0%]) and anemia (27/165 [16.4%]). During the postoperative period, the most common complications were neurologic deficits, seizures, postoperative anemia, and aspiration pneumonia. The mortality rate with death or euthanasia perioperatively or ≤ 10 days postoperatively was 14.5% (24/165). Long-term complications occurred in 65 of the 165 (39.4%) animals, with seizures and neurologic deficits being the most common.
Cranial surgery was performed most commonly for the removal of neoplastic lesions in dogs and cats, and most complications were not life-threatening.
Objective—To assess tolerability and short-term efficacy of oral administration of pregabalin as an adjunct to phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of phenobarbital and potassium bromide for treatment of dogs with poorly controlled suspected idiopathic epilepsy.
Design—Open-label, noncomparative clinical trial.
Animals—11 client-owned dogs suspected of having idiopathic epilepsy that was inadequately controlled with phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of these 2 drugs.
Procedures—Dogs were treated with pregabalin (3 to 4 mg/kg [1.4 to 1.8 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 3 months. Number of generalized seizures in the 3 months before and after initiation of pregabalin treatment was recorded. Number of responders (≥ 50% reduction in seizure frequency) was recorded, and seizure frequency before and after initiation of pregabalin treatment was compared by use of a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test.
Results—Seizures were significantly reduced (mean, 57%; median, 50%) after pregabalin administration in the 9 dogs that completed the study; 7 were considered responders with mean and median seizure reductions of 64% and 58%, respectively. Adverse effects for pregabalin were reported in 10 dogs. Mean and median plasma pregabalin concentrations for all dogs were 6.4 and 7.3 μg/mL, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pregabalin may hold promise as a safe and effective adjunct anticonvulsant drug for epileptic dogs poorly controlled with the standard drugs phenobarbital or potassium bromide. Adverse effects of pregabalin appeared to be mild. Additional studies with larger numbers of dogs and longer follow-up intervals are warranted.