OBJECTIVE To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the urinary bladder incision site in dogs that underwent cystotomy for treatment of urolithiasis.
DESIGN Prospective, longitudinal study.
ANIMALS 18 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs underwent urinary bladder ultrasonography at baseline (≤ 1 day before surgery) and at 1 day and approximately 2, 6, and 12 weeks after cystotomy for urocystolith removal. A baseline ratio between ventral (cystotomy site) and corresponding dorsal midline wall thickness was calculated and used to account for measurement variations attributable to bladder distension at subsequent visits. Patient signalment, weight, medications administered, urocystolith composition, and culture results were recorded. Clinical signs, reoccurrence of hyperechoic foci, and suture visualization were recorded at follow-up examinations. Variables were evaluated for association with cystotomy site thickening and resolution of thickening.
RESULTS Median wall thickness at the ventral aspect of the bladder was significantly greater than that of the corresponding dorsal aspect at baseline. Cystotomy site thickening peaked 1 day after surgery and decreased at subsequent visits in a linear manner. Twelve weeks after surgery, 5 of 10 clinically normal dogs evaluated had persistent cystotomy site thickening. Eleven of 18 dogs had reoccurrence of hyperechoic foci within the bladder at some time during the study (median time to first detection, 17 days after surgery).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Persistent cystotomy site thickening can be present up to 3 months after cystotomy for urolithiasis in dogs without lower urinary tract signs. Reoccurrence of hyperechoic foci in the bladder, although subclinical, was detected earlier and at a higher rate than anticipated.
Objective—To determine whether changes in presurgical plasma lactate concentration (before and after initial fluid resuscitation and gastric decompression) were associated with short-term outcome for dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed, and signalment, history, resuscitative treatments, serial presurgical lactate concentrations, surgical findings, and short-term outcome were obtained for dogs with confirmed GDV.
Results—36 of 40 (90%) dogs with an initial lactate concentration ≤ 9.0 mmol/L survived, compared with only 13 of 24 (54%) dogs with a high initial lactate (HIL) concentration (> 9.0 mmol/L). Within HIL dogs, there was no difference in mean ± SD initial lactate concentration between survivors and nonsurvivors (10.6 ± 2.3 mmol/L vs 11.2 ± 2.3 mmol/L, respectively); however, there were significant differences in post-treatment lactate concentration, absolute change in lactate concentration, and percentage change in lactate concentration following resuscitative treatment. By use of optimal cutoff values within HIL dogs, survival rates for dogs with final lactate concentration > 6.4 mmol/L (23%), absolute change in lactate concentration ≤ 4 mmol/L (10%), or percentage change in lactate concentration ≤ 42.5% (15%) were significantly lower than survival rates for dogs with a final lactate concentration ≤ 6.4 mmol/L (91%), absolute change in lactate concentration > 4 mmol/L (86%), or percentage change in lactate concentration > 42.5% (100%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Calculating changes in plasma lactate concentration following initial treatment in dogs with GDV may assist in determining prognosis and identifying patients that require more aggressive treatment.
To determine the outcome in dogs diagnosed with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS) at ≥ 5 years of age treated with medical management only (M) or with surgical attenuation (S). The hypothesis was that dogs undergoing surgical attenuation would have a longer survival time than dogs undergoing medical management only.
351 dogs definitively diagnosed with EHPSS at ≥ 5 years of age.
Medical records from 2009 to 2019 at 16 veterinary teaching hospitals were evaluated. Data collected included signalment, clinical signs at diagnosis, clinicopathologic data, surgical and medical treatments, shunt morphology, clinical signs and medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis, and survival time.
351 dogs (M, 119 [33.9%]; S, 232 [66.1%]) were included in the study. Survival time was longer with surgery than medical management (hazard ratio, 4.2; M, 3.4 years; S, 10.9 years). Continued clinical signs at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common with medical management (M, 40% [33/88]; S, 14% [21/155]). Continued medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common in the medical management group (M, 78% [69/88]; S, 34% [53/155]). Perioperative mortality rate was 7.3%.
Dogs diagnosed at ≥ 5 years of age with EHPSS have significantly better survival times and fewer clinical signs with surgical attenuation, compared with medical management. Older dogs have similar surgical mortality rates to dogs of all ages after surgical EHPSS attenuation.