Objective—To investigate the effects of dexamethasone or levothyroxine sodium on endotoxin-induced alterations in glucose and insulin dynamics.
Procedures—Horses were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups and received 48 mg of levothyroxine mixed with 200 g of oats, 20 mg of dexamethasone plus oats, or oats alone (control) for 15 days, followed by IV infusion of lipopolysaccharide (20 ng/kg) while individually housed in stalls. Frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests were performed prior to pretreatment, after pretreatment, and 20 hours after lipopolysaccharide administration. Area under the curve for plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations was calculated, and minimal model analyses were performed.
Results—Significant treatment-by-time effects were detected for insulin sensitivity (SI) and area under the curve for glucose and insulin in the 15-day pretreatment period. Insulin sensitivity significantly decreased over time in all treatment groups, with the largest decrease detected in the dexamethasone group. Administration of lipopolysaccharide further decreased mean SI by 71% and 63% in the dexamethasone and control groups, respectively, but did not affect horses in the levothyroxine group. Mean SI was the lowest in the dexamethasone group, but percentage reduction was the same for dexamethasone and control groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Insulin sensitivity decreased during the pretreatment period in all 3 groups, indicating that hospitalization affected glucose and insulin dynamics. Dexamethasone significantly lowered SI, and endotoxemia further exacerbated insulin resistance. In contrast, there was no additional effect of endotoxemia on SI in horses pretreated with levothyroxine, suggesting that this treatment prevented endotoxemia-induced insulin resistance.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of endotoxin administered IV on glucose and insulin dynamics in horses.
Animals—16 healthy adult mares.
Procedures—Each week of a 2-week randomized crossover study, each horse received an IV injection (duration, 30 minutes) of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 60 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (20 ng/kg) or sterile saline solution alone (control treatment). Frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test procedures were performed at 24 hours before (baseline) and 24 and 48 hours after injection; glucose and insulin dynamics were assessed via minimal model analysis.
Results—13 of 16 horses had a clinical response to LPS, which was characterized by mild colic and leukopenia. Before treatment, mean ± SD insulin sensitivity was 2.9 ± 1.9 × 10−4 L·min−1·mU−1; this significantly decreased to 0.9 ± 0.9 × 10−4 L·min−1·mU−1 24 hours after treatment (69% reduction) and was 1.5 ± 0.9 × 10−4 L·min−1·mU−1 48 hours after treatment. At baseline, mean ± SD acute insulin response to glucose was 520 ± 196 mU·min·L−1; this significantly increased to 938 ± 620 mU·min·L−1 (80% increase) and 755 ± 400 mU·min·L−1 (45% increase) at 24 and 48 hours after LPS treatment, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with baseline values, insulin sensitivity was decreased for 24 hours after IV injection of LPS, and affected horses had a compensatory pancreatic response. These disturbances in glucose and insulin dynamics may contribute to development of laminitis in horses.
Objective—To compare results (ie, return to racing
and earnings per race start) of surgical versus nonsurgical
management of sagittal slab fractures of the
third carpal bone in racehorses.
Animals—32 racehorses (19 Thoroughbreds, 11
Standardbreds, and 2 Arabians).
Procedure—Medical records and radiographs were
reviewed to obtain information regarding signalment
and treatment. Follow-up information was obtained
from race records. Robust regression analysis was
performed to evaluate earnings per start in horses
that raced at least once before and after injury.
Results—22 (69%) horses raced at least once after
treatment of the fracture. All 7 horses treated by
means of interfragmentary compression raced after
treatment, and horses that underwent interfragmentary
compression had significantly higher earnings
per start after the injury than did horses treated without
surgery. Eight of 9 horses treated by means of
arthroscopic debridement of the damaged cartilage
and bone raced after treatment, but only 7 of 16 horses
treated without surgery (ie, stall rest) were able to
return to racing after treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that racehorses with sagittal slab fractures of the
third carpal bone have a favorable prognosis for return
to racing after treatment. Horses treated surgically
were more likely to race after treatment than were
horses treated without surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
OBJECTIVE To develop a risk prediction model for factors associated with an SeM-specific antibody titer ≥ 3,200 in horses after naturally occurring outbreaks of Streptococcus equi subsp equi infection and to validate this model.
DESIGN Case-control study.
ANIMALS 245 horses: 57 horses involved in strangles outbreaks (case horses) and 188 healthy horses (control horses).
PROCEDURES Serum samples were obtained from the 57 cases over a 27.5-month period after the start of outbreaks; serum samples were obtained once from the 188 controls. A Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to assess potential risk factors associated with an antibody titer ≥ 3,200 in the case horses. A cutoff probability for an SeM-specific titer ≥ 3,200 was determined, and the model was externally validated in the control horses. Only variables with a 95% credibility interval that did not overlap with a value of 1 were considered significant.
RESULTS 9 of 57 (6%) case horses had at least 1 titer ≥ 3,200, and 7 of 188 (3.7%) of control horses had a titer ≥ 3,200. The following variables were found to be significantly associated with a titer ≥ 3,200 in cases: farm size > 20 horses (OR, 0.11), history of clinically evident disease (OR, 7.92), and male sex (OR, 0.11). The model had 100% sensitivity but only 24% specificity when applied to the 188 control horses (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.62.)
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although the Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression model developed in this study did not perform well, it may prove useful as an initial screening tool prior to vaccination. We suggest that SeM-specific antibody titer be measured prior to vaccination when our model predicts a titer ≥ 3,200.
Objective—To determine racing performance after surgery for colic in Thoroughbreds.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—85 racing Thoroughbreds that survived to discharge following colic surgery and 170 race-matched reference horses.
Procedures—Earnings, starts, and earnings per start were compared between horses that underwent surgery and reference horses, the proportions of horses that returned to racing were analyzed, and career longevity was determined.
Results—Among 85 racing Thoroughbreds that underwent colic surgery, 31 (36%) had primarily small intestinal lesions, of which 11 underwent resection; 54 (64%) had large intestinal lesions, of which 2 underwent resection. Fifty-nine of 85 (69%) horses that underwent colic surgery returned to racing after a 6-month recovery period versus 125 of 170 (73%) reference horses (OR, 0.81). In the 36-month postoperative period, reference horses earned a mean of $7,866 more, had a mean of 0.26 more starts, and had mean earnings per start of $29 more than horses that underwent surgery. Horses that underwent surgery did not have different career lengths than reference horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses that underwent colic surgery did not have a significant reduction in measures of performance or career length, compared with a reference cohort.
Objective—To determine whether an activity monitor (AM) could be used to detect changes in activity in dogs with osteoarthritis treated with carprofen or a placebo.
Design—Randomized controlled trial.
Animals—70 dogs with no clinically important abnormalities other than osteoarthritis for which they were not currently being treated.
Procedures—Dogs wore an AM continuously for 21 days. On days 8 through 21, the dogs were treated with carprofen (n = 35) or a placebo (35). Total activity counts for days 1 through 7 (baseline) were compared with total activity counts for days 15 through 21 (endpoint). The change in total activity count from baseline to endpoint was assessed within each treatment group as well as between groups. Linear regression analysis was performed to test for an association between treatment and percentage change in activity counts while controlling for other variables.
Results—For placebo-treated dogs, median baseline total activity count was not significantly different from median endpoint total activity count (1,378,408 vs 1,310,112, respectively). For dogs receiving carprofen, there was a significant increase in median activity count from baseline to endpoint (1,276,427 vs 1,374,133). When age and baseline activity counts were controlled for, dogs in the carpofen-treated group had a 20% increase in activity counts, compared with placebo-treated dogs (95% confidence interval, 10% to 26%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the AM used in the present study may be a valid outcome assessment tool for documenting improved activity associated with treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis.
Objective—To evaluate equids with enostosis-like lesions (ELLs) and document the clinical and epidemiological features of this disease.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—79 equids with a scintigraphic diagnosis of at least 1 ELL on ≥ 1 occasion.
Procedures—Medical records of 4,992 equids that underwent bone scintigraphy between March 1997 and March 2009 were reviewed; 78 horses and 1 pony had a scintigraphic diagnosis of an ELL. For those equids, signalment; physical, scintigraphic, radiographic, and lameness examination results; and outcome were reviewed.
Results—Of the 79 equids, 4 (5.1%) had anatomically distinct ELLs on 2 (n = 3) or 4 (1) separate occasions that caused lameness in different limbs. Thus, there were 85 ELL-related admissions to the hospital. Overall, 157 ELLs were detected. Among all equids undergoing scintigraphic examination, Thoroughbreds were more commonly and Standardbreds were less commonly affected. Older animals were more likely to have ELLs. Lameness was directly attributed to scintigraphically evident ELLs in 42 of the 85 (49.4%) admissions. The tibia (62/157 [39.5%]) and the radius (46/157 [29.3%]) were most commonly affected. The ELLs located in the humerus caused more severe lameness than did ELLs in other anatomic locations. Lameness severity was associated with radiopharmaceutical uptake intensity. Among racehorses, those with 1 ELL were more likely to return to racing than were those with multiple ELLs detected in 1 scintigraphic examination; mean interval from diagnosis to first start was 184 days.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this retrospective evaluation of a large group of equids with ELLs have provided a better understanding of this disease process.
Objective—To measure plasma ACTH, D-melanocyte–stimulating hormone (D-MSH), and insulin concentrations during various photoperiods between February and October in horses and ponies with and without pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID).
Animals—13 clinically normal (control) ponies, 14 clinically normal (control) horses, 7 ponies with PPID, and 8 horses with PPID.
Procedures—Blood samples were collected from February through October during 8 photoperiods: 1, February 13 through March 2; 2, April 4 through 6; 3, June 19 through 22; 4, August 6 through 7; 5, August 14 through 17; 6, September 4 through 6; 7, September 26 through 28; and 8, October 16 through 18. Plasma ACTH, D-MSH, and insulin concentrations at each photoperiod were compared among groups.
Results—Log ACTH concentration was increased during photoperiod 4 through 8, compared with photoperiod 1 through 3, in all groups. In photoperiod 3 through 7, log ACTH concentrations were higher in horses and ponies with PPID, compared with values for control horses and ponies. D-Melanocyte–stimulating hormone (log and raw value) concentration was higher in photoperiod 2 through 8, compared with photoperiod 1, in control horses and ponies. In horses and ponies with PPID, log D-MSH concentration was higher in photoperiod 3 through 8, and D-MSH concentration was higher in photoperiod 4 through 8, compared with photoperiod 1. In control horses and ponies, plasma insulin concentration was lower in photoperiod 3 than in photoperiod 1.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plasma D-MSH and ACTH concentrations increased as daylight decreased from summer solstice (maximum daylight hours) to 12 hours of daylight.
Objective—To evaluate predictor variables for and complications associated with Streptococcus equi subsp equi infection (strangles) in horses.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—108 horses with strangles (cases) and 215 horses without strangles (controls).
Procedures—Medical records from January 2005 through July 2012 were reviewed. Cases were defined as horses with clinical signs of strangles (pyrexia, retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy, and mucopurulent nasal discharge) that were associated with a confirmed strangles outbreak or had positive results for S equi on PCR assay or bacteriologic culture. Controls were defined as horses with pyrexia that did not meet the other criteria for cases. Data compared between cases and controls included signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, and disease complications and outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with strangles and its complications.
Results—Clinical signs of strangles were not evident in 12 of 25 cases classified as S equi carriers (infected > 40 days). Predictor variables associated with strangles included mucopurulent nasal discharge and external abscesses in the pharyngeal region. Strangles was more likely to be diagnosed in the spring than in the summer. Cases with anemia were more likely to develop purpura hemorrhagica than were cases without anemia. No risk factors were identified for the development of guttural pouch empyema or metastatic abscesses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that not all horses infected with S equi develop clinical signs of strangles. We recommend that guttural pouch endoscopy and lavage with PCR assay of lavage fluid samples be performed to identify S equi carrier horses.
Objective—To ascertain whether laminitis can be induced via administration of oligofructose (OF) at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg in horses and to assess glucose and insulin dynamics before and after treatment.
Animals—19 adult horses.
Procedures—Horses were fed OF (1.0 g/kg) mixed with oats for 6 days. Oligofructose at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg was then mixed with 4 L of water and administered (0 hours) to 8 (group A) and 4 (group B) horses, respectively, via nasogastric intubation; 8 horses received water alone. One horse in group A that did not develop laminitis was subsequently treated again and included in group B. Before and at intervals after treatment, resting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were measured and frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests were performed. Area under the glucose curve (AUCg) and area under the insulin curve (AUCi) were calculated, and minimal model analyses were performed.
Results—3 of 8 horses in group A and all 4 horses in group B developed laminitis. Significant treatment-time effects were detected for resting plasma glucose concentrations and AUCg. Among horses in group A, mean AUCg values at 24 and 48 hours were 34% and 32% higher, respectively, than the mean value at 24 hours. Treatment groups did not differ significantly with respect to resting serum insulin concentration, AUCi, or minimal model analysis results.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, laminitis can be induced and glucose dynamics altered via nasogastric administration of 5.0 g of OF/kg. An alteration in insulin dynamics was not detected following treatment with OF.