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Objective—To determine whether 1% diclofenac liposomal suspension (DLS) ointment would be absorbed transdermally and attenuate experimentally induced subcutaneous inflammation in horses.

Animals—7 healthy adult horses

Procedure—Inflammation was produced by injecting 1% sterile carrageenan into subcutaneously implanted tissue cages 8 hours before (time –8) and at the time of application of test ointment. A crossover design was used. Horses received 1 of 2 treatments (topically administered control or DLS ointments) during 48 hours of carrageenan-induced subcutaneous inflammation. A single application of test ointment (7.2 g) was applied over each tissue cage (time 0). Samples of transudate and blood were collected at –8, 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 48 hours. Plasma and transudate diclofenac concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Transudate concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined with a competitive enzyme immunoassay.

Results—DLS was absorbed transdermally. The highest concentration (mean ± SEM, 76.2 ± 29 ng/mL) was detectable in tissue-cage fluid within 18 hours after application. Minimal concentrations of diclofenac were detectable in plasma. Application of DLS significantly decreased transudate concentrations of PGE2 at 6 and 30 hours. Decreases in PGE2 concentration were observed in the DLS group at all collection times.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single topical application of DLS resulted in concentrations of diclofenac in transudate within 6 hours and significantly attenuated carrageenan-induced local production of PGE2. Results of this study suggest that DLS is readily absorbed transdermally and may be efficacious for reducing subcutaneous inflammation in horses. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:271–276)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate effects of protamine zinc insulin (PZI) on control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus or poorly controlled diabetes.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—67 diabetic cats.

Procedure—34 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes and 33 cats with poorly controlled diabetes were treated with PZI twice daily for 45 days. Control of glycemia was assessed on days 7, 14, 30, and 45 by evaluation of clinical response, change in body weight, serum fructosamine concentration, blood glucose concentration measured 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours after administration of PZI, lowest blood glucose concentration, and mean blood glucose concentration during the 9-hour period after administration. Adjustments in dosage of PZI were made as needed to attain control of glycemia.

Results—For all cats, a significant increase in mean dosage of PZI and significant decreases in 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration, lowest mean blood glucose concentration, and mean serum fructosamine concentration were detected. For cats with poorly controlled diabetes, 9-hour mean blood glucose concentration and mean serum fructosamine concentration were significantly decreased on day 45, compared with day 0. Ninety percent of owners reported improvement or resolution of clinical signs by day 45.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that PZI was effective for control of glycemia in cats with newly diagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes and may be used as an initial treatment or as an alternative treatment in cats that do not respond to treatment with other types of insulin. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:38–42)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate and compare characteristics of a commercially manufactured protamine zinc insulin (PZI) product and PZI products obtained from various compounding pharmacies.

Design—Evaluation study.

Sample—112 vials of PZI (16 vials of the commercially manufactured product and 8 vials from each of 12 compounding pharmacies) purchased over an 8-month period.

Procedures—Validated methods were used to analyze 2 vials of each product at 4 time points. Appearance, endotoxin concentration, crystal size, insulin concentration in the supernatant, pH, total insulin and zinc concentrations, and species of insulin origin were evaluated.

Results—All 16 vials of commercially manufactured PZI met United States Pharmacopeia (USP) specifications. Of 96 vials of compounded PZI, 1 (1 %) contained a concentration of endotoxin > 32 endotoxin U/mL, 23 (24%) had concentrations of insulin in the supernatant > 1.0 U/mL, and 45 (47%) had pH values < 7.1 or > 7.4; all of these values were outside of specifications. Several vials of compounded PZI (52/96 [54%]) did not meet specifications for zinc concentration (0.06 to 0.1 mg/mL for 40 U of insulin/mL, 0.075 to 0.12 mg/mL for 50 U of insulin/mL, and 0.15 to 0.25 mg/mL for 100 U of insulin/mL), and total insulin concentration in 36 [38%] vials was < 90% of the labeled concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Only 1 of 12 compounded PZI products met all USP specifications in all vials tested. Use of compounded PZI insulin products could potentially lead to serious problems with glycemic control in veterinary patients.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association