OBJECTIVE To assess signalment and concurrent disease processes in dogs with aortic thrombotic disease (ATD).
DESIGN Retrospective case-control study.
ANIMALS Dogs examined at North American veterinary teaching hospitals from 1985 through 2011 with medical records submitted to the Veterinary Medical Database.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with a diagnosis of ATD (case dogs). Five control dogs without a diagnosis of ATD were then identified for every case dog. Data were collected regarding dog age, sex, breed, body weight, and concurrent disease processes.
RESULTS ATD was diagnosed in 291 of the 984,973 (0.03%) dogs included in the database. The odds of a dog having ATD did not differ significantly by sex, age, or body weight. Compared with mixed-breed dogs, Shetland Sheepdogs had a significantly higher odds of ATD (OR, 2.59). Protein-losing nephropathy (64/291 [22%]) was the most commonly recorded concurrent disease in dogs with ATD.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dogs with ATD did not differ significantly from dogs without ATD in most signalment variables. Contrary to previous reports, cardiac disease was not a common concurrent diagnosis in dogs with ATD.
To investigate the effects of recombinant equine IL-1β on function of equine endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) in vitro.
ECFCs derived from peripheral blood samples of 3 healthy adult geldings.
Function testing was performed to assess in vitro wound healing, tubule formation, cell adhesion, and uptake of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′ tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate–labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL) by cultured ECFCs. Cell proliferation was determined by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assay. Effects on function test results of different concentrations and exposure times of recombinant equine IL-1β were assessed.
Challenge of cultured ECFCs with IL-1β for 48 hours inhibited tubule formation. Continuous challenge (54 hours) with IL-1β in the wound healing assay reduced gap closure. The IL-1β exposure did not significantly affect ECFC adhesion, DiI-Ac-LDL uptake, or ECFC proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
These results suggested a role for IL-1β in the inhibition of ECFC function in vitro. Functional changes in ECFCs following challenge with IL-1β did not appear to be due to changes in cell proliferative capacity. These findings have implications for designing microenvironments for and optimizing therapeutic effects of ECFCs used to treat ischemic diseases in horses.
To compare pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in serum and CSF of cats after oral administration of extended-release (ER) levetiracetam.
9 healthy cats.
Cats received 1 dose of a commercially available ER levetiracetam product (500 mg, PO). Thirteen blood and 10 CSF samples were collected over a 24-hour period for pharmacokinetic analysis. After 1 week, cats received 1 dose of a compounded ER levetiracetam formulation (500 mg, PO), and samples were obtained at the same times for analysis.
CSF concentrations of levetiracetam closely paralleled serum concentrations. There were significant differences between the commercially available product and the compounded formulation for mean ± SD serum maximum concentration (Cmax; 126 ± 33 μg/mL and 169 ± 51 μg/mL, respectively), Cmax corrected for dose (0.83 ± 0.10 μg/mL/mg and 1.10 ± 0.28 μg/mL/mg, respectively), and time to Cmax (5.1 ± 1.6 hours and 3.1 ± 1.5 hours, respectively). Half-life for the commercially available product and compounded formulation of ER levetiracetam was 4.3 ± 2.0 hours and 5.0 ± 1.6 hours, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The commercially available product and compounded formulation of ER levetiracetam both maintained concentrations in healthy cats 12 hours after oral administration that have been found to be therapeutic in humans (ie, 5 μg/mL). Results of this study supported dosing intervals of 12 hours, and potentially 24 hours, for oral administration of ER levetiracetam to cats. Monitoring of serum concentrations of levetiracetam can be used as an accurate representation of levetiracetam concentrations in CSF of cats.