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Abstract

Objective—To assess the strain heterogeneity of enrofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infections in dogs at a veterinary medical teaching hospital (VMTH). In addition, strains from other veterinary hospitals in California were compared with the VMTH strains to assess the geographic distribution of specific enrofloxacin-resistant E coli isolates.

Design—Bacteriologic study.

Sample Population—56 isolates of E coli from urine samples (43 isolates from dogs at the VMTH, 13 isolates from dogs from other veterinary clinics in California).

Procedures—Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was performed on 56 isolates of E coli from urine samples from 56 dogs. All 56 isolates were tested for susceptibility to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cephalexin, and ampicillin. Enrofloxacin usage data from 1994 to 1998 were obtained from the VMTH pharmacy.

Results—Several strains of enrofloxacin-resistant E coli were collected from urine samples from the VMTH, and strains identical to those from the VMTH were collected from other veterinary clinics in California. For the isolates that did share similar DNA banding patterns, variable antibiotic resistance profiles were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The increased occurrence of enrofloxacin-resistant E coli from urine samples from dogs at the VMTH was not likely attributable to a single enrofloxacinresistant clone but may be attributed to a collective increase in enrofloxacin resistance among uropathogenic E coli in dogs in general. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:190–192)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To create a stochastic model to quantify the risk that shipments of cattle from regions within the United States would contain animals seropositive for bluetongue virus and to determine shipment-level accuracy of serologic testing by use of a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA).

Sample Population—19,216 shipments containing 528,918 cattle and calves.

Procedure—Data were obtained on number of animals and state of origin of cattle in export shipments originating within the United States between January 1994 and March 2002. Probability distributions for size of export shipments were determined for all states within the United States, and distributions for agar gel immunodiffusion and c-ELISA accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) were determined from expert opinion and review of the literature. The model simulated selection of a shipment and then determined the probability that a threshold number or percentage of cattle within that shipment would have a positive c-ELISA result. Shipment-level sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value, and negative-predictive value were calculated.

Results—Substantial differences were evident in the regional probability of a shipment being declared positive, with shipments from northeastern states having the lowest probability and shipments from southwestern states having the highest probability. The c- ELISA had variable predictive values at the shipment level, depending on the threshold used and the prevalence of antibody-positive cattle within the region.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results from this study will aid importers in making scientifically based decisions regarding risk of importing antibodypositive cattle. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:520–529)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against the serogroup of epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDVs) and describe spatial distribution of antibodies against EHDV among cattle herds in Illinois and western Indiana.

Sample Population—9,414 serum samples collected from cattle in 60 herds over 3 transmission seasons.

Procedures—Serum samples were tested for antibodies against EHDV by use of an ELISA. Seroprevalence for 4 zones covering the length of Illinois and parts of Indiana were estimated. A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model with a random effect for herd was used to estimate seropositive risk for zone (1 through 4), age (yearling, adult), herd type (beef, dairy), transmission season (2000 to 2002), and zone by year interaction. Isopleth maps of seroprevalence at the herd level were produced.

Results—Antibodies against EHDV were detected in 1,110 (11.8%) samples. Estimated seroprevalence in 2000, 2001, and 2002 was 15.3%, 13.4%, and 5.2%, respectively. Seroprevalence was highest in the southernmost zone and lowest in the northernmost zone, but risk of seropositivity for EHDV among and within zones varied by year. Clusters of high seroprevalence in the south, low seroprevalence in the north, and outliers of high and low seroprevalence were detected. Risk mapping revealed areas of higher seroprevalence extending northward along the western and eastern ends of the study region.

Conclusions—Seroprevalence of antibodies against EHDV in cattle was higher in the south than north; however, local complexities existed that were not observed in a serosurvey of antibodies against bluetongue virus from the same cattle population.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of bluetongue virus (BTV) and the geographic distribution of seropositive cattle herds in Illinois and western Indiana.

Sample Population—10,585 serum samples obtained from cattle in 60 herds during 3 transmission seasons (2000 through 2002).

Procedures—In a longitudinal study, serum samples were tested for BTV antibodies by use of a competitive ELISA. Four geographic zones were created by use of mean minimum January temperature. A multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression model with a random effect for herd was used to estimate seropositive risk for zone, age of cattle, herd type, and transmission season.

Results—Overall, BTV antibodies were detected in 156 (1.5%) samples. Estimated seroprevalence in 2000, 2001, and 2002 was 1.49%, 0.97%, and 2.18%, respectively. Risk of being seropositive for BTV was associated with geographic zone and age. Seroprevalence increased progressively from northern to southern zones, with no evidence of BTV infection in the northernmost zone. In the southernmost zone, annual seroprevalence ranged from 8.65% to 11.00%. Adult cattle were 2.35 times as likely as juvenile cattle to be seropositive.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Overall seroprevalence was lower than has been reported for Illinois cattle. Bluetongue virus antibodies were distributed heterogeneously in this region. Only in the southernmost zone was seroprevalence consistently > 2%. Regionalization of BTV risk based on state borders does not account for such variability. Serologic data could be combined with landscape, climate, and vector data to develop predictive models of BTV risk within transitional regions of the United States.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant strains of Pasteurella multocida and P haemolytica isolated from California cattle with pneumonia were spatially and temporally clustered and to compare overall estimates of percentages of these isolates resistant to these antimicrobials with estimates obtained on the basis of regional and temporal information.

Design

Epidemiologic study.

Sample Population

Records of P multocida and P haemolytica isolates obtained from lung or tracheal wash samples collected from California cattle with pneumonia between July 1, 1991 and July 31, 1996. Only isolates obtained from samples submitted by dairies and calf ranches were used.

Procedure

Spatial clustering of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant isolates was assessed by use of nearest-neighbor and Cuzick and Edwards' analyses. Linear clustering along a north-south line was assessed by use of runs and maximum length of runs tests. Temporal clustering was assessed by use of scan tests. Spatial-temporal clustering was assessed by use of Barton's method. Regional estimates of percentages of P multocida and P haemolytica resistant to ampicillin or tetracycline were calculated.

Results

There was significant spatial clustering of resistant isolates and significant linear clustering along a north-south line. Significant differences in regional estimates of percentages of antimicrobial-resistant isolates were found.

Clinical Implications

Results support the hypothesis that antimicrobial-resistant organisms can be clustered at the local level and reinforce the need to establish regional estimates of percentages of bacterial isolates that will be susceptible to commonly used antimicrobials. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1001–1005)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of tylosin on C-reactive protein concentration, carriage of Salmonella enterica, and antimicrobial resistance genes in commercial pigs.

Animals—120 pigs on 2 commercial farms.

Procedures—A cohort of sixty 10-week-old pigs in 4 pens/farm (15 pigs/pen) was randomly selected. Equal numbers of pigs were given feed containing tylosin (40 μg/g of feed) for 0, 6, or 12 weeks. C-reactive protein concentrations were measured, microbial culture for S enterica in feces was performed, and antimicrobial resistance genes in feces were quantified.

Results—No significant associations were detected between C-reactive protein concentration or S enterica status and tylosin treatment. During the 12 weeks of tylosin administration, increased levels of 6 antimicrobial resistance genes did not occur.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of pigs with tylosin did not affect C-reactive protein concentration or reduce carriage or load of S enterica. There was no evidence that pigs receiving tylosin had increased carriage of the 6 antimicrobial resistance genes measured.

Impact for Human MedicineS enterica is a public health concern. Use of the antimicrobial growth promoter tylosin did not pose a public health risk by means of increased carriage of S enterica.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To develop a model of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection that induces severe disease similar to that seen in some cattle with naturally acquired BRSV infection.

Animals

25 male Holstein calves, 8 to 16 weeks old.

Procedure

17 calves were given a low-passage field isolate of BRSV by aerosolization; 8 control calves were given supernatant from noninfected cell culture. Disease was characterized by evaluating clinical signs, virus isolation and pulmonary function tests, and results of blood gas analysis, gross and histologic postmortem examination, and microbiologic testing.

Results

Cumulative incidence of cough, harsh lung sounds, adventitious sounds, and dyspnea and increases in rectal temperature and respiratory rate were significantly greater in infected calves. Three infected calves developed extreme respiratory distress and were euthanatized 7 days after inoculation. Virus was isolated from nasal swab specimens from all infected calves but not from mock infected calves. On day 7 after inoculation, mean Pao2 and Paco2 were significantly lower, and pulmonary resistance was significantly higher, in infected calves. During necropsy, infected calves had varying degrees of necrotizing and proliferative bronchiolitis and alveolitis with syncytial formation. The 3 calves euthanatized on day 7 had emphysematous bullae in the caudal lung lobes; 1 had unilateral pneumothorax.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Severe disease similar to that seen in some cattle with naturally acquired BRSV infection can be induced in calves with a single aerosol exposure of a low-passage clinical isolate of BRSV. Our model will be useful for studying the pathogenesis of BRSV infection and for evaluating vaccines and therapeutics. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:473-480)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Recent state and federal legislative actions and current recommendations from the World Health Organization seem to suggest that, when it comes to antimicrobial stewardship, use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease can be ranked in order of appropriateness, which in turn has led, in some instances, to attempts to limit or specifically oppose the routine use of medically important antimicrobials for prevention of disease. In contrast, the AVMA Committee on Antimicrobials believes that attempts to evaluate the degree of antimicrobial stewardship on the basis of therapeutic intent are misguided and that use of antimicrobials for prevention, control, or treatment of disease may comply with the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. It is important that veterinarians and animal caretakers are clear about the reason they may be administering antimicrobials to animals in their care. Concise definitions of prevention, control, and treatment of individuals and populations are necessary to avoid confusion and to help veterinarians clearly communicate their intentions when prescribing or recommending antimicrobial use.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Supply chain issues disrupt veterinary care and cause downstream consequences that alter the practice of veterinary medicine. Antimicrobials are just 1 class of pharmaceuticals that have been impacted by supply chain issues over the last couple of years. Since February 2021, 2 sponsors/manufacturers of penicillin products have reported shortages in the active pharmaceutical ingredient. With the release of the 2021 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals by the FDA, a key finding was a 19% decrease in penicillin sales and distribution from 2020 to 2021. Herein, we provide our clinicians’ professional perspective regarding how drug shortages, specifically that of penicillin, might contribute to misconstrued patterns in antimicrobial use and what can be done by veterinarians and the FDA to minimize the impact of an antimicrobial drug shortage on animal health and well-being.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association