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  • Author or Editor: Randal K. Buddington x
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Abstract

Objective—To describe postnatal changes in the populations of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of dogs.

Animals—110 Beagles ranging from neonatal to adult dogs.

Procedure—Contents of the stomach and proximal and distal portions of the colon and contents and mucosa of the mid region of the small intestine were collected from puppies at 1 day after birth and subsequent suckling; puppies at 21, 42, and 63 days after birth; and adult female dogs (ie, dams of the puppies) for enumeration of bacterial populations.

Results—The entire GIT was colonized at day 1 by all groups of bacteria studied; aerotolerant forms were dominant. During subsequent postnatal development, there were changes in the relative proportions of the various groups of bacteria with anaerobic groups increasing in absolute and relative numbers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Establishment of bacterial populations in the GIT of dogs is a gradual process that begins immediately after birth. Age-related changes in the relative proportions of bacterial groups coincided with changes in diet and physiologic processes of the host and can influence nutritional state and disease resistance of developing dogs. Differences among regions of the GIT suggest that fecal samples may have limited use for understanding the populations of bacteria and the age and diet-related changes in various regions of the GIT. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:646–651)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure nutrient absorption by the intestine during postnatal development of dogs.

Animals—110 Beagles ranging from neonatal to adult dogs.

Procedure—Rates of absorption for sugars (glucose, galactose, and fructose), amino acids (aspartate, leucine, lysine, methionine, and proline), a dipeptide (glycyl-sarcosine), and linoleic acid by the proximal, mid, and distal regions of the small intestine were measured as functions of age and concentration (kinetics) by use of intact tissues and brush-border membrane vesicles. Absorption of octanoic acid by the proximal portion of the colon was measured in intact tissues.

Results—Rates of carrier-mediated transport by intact tissues decreased from birth to adulthood for aldohexoses and most amino acids but not for fructose and aspartate. Kinetics and characteristics of absorption suggest that there were changes in the densities, types, and proportions of various carriers for sugars and amino acids. Saturable absorption of linoleic acid in the small intestine and octanoic acid in the proximal portion of the colon increased after weaning.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Rates of absorption decreased between birth and adulthood for most nutrients. However, because of intestinal growth, absorption capacities of the entire small intestine remained constant for leucine and proline and increased for glucose, galactose, fructose, aspartate, and proline but were less than predicted from the increase in body weight. Although postnatal ontogeny of nutrient absorption was consistent with changes in the composition of the natural and commercial diets of growing dogs, rates of amino acid and peptide absorption were lower than expected. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:635–645)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantify dimensions of the small intestine of dogs and describe changes in histologic characteristics of the mucosa during postnatal development.

Sample Population—Gastrointestinal tract tissues obtained from 110 Beagles (15 adult females and 95 puppies of both sexes).

Procedure—Several variables (length, total weight, mucosal weight, and nominal surface area) of the small intestine were measured in puppies at birth but before suckling; 1 day after birth and subsequent suckling, 21, 42, and 63 days after birth, and in the adult dams of the puppies. Tissue structure was examined and quantified at each time point by use of routine histologic examination and ocular micrometry of formalin-fixed specimens stained with H&E.

Results—Small intestinal dimensions increased throughout development with the greatest proportional changes during the first day after birth and onset of suckling. Villus height decreased during suckling but had consistent values from 42 days after birth to maturity, whereas crypt depth increased from birth to maturity. Vacuolated enterocytes were evident from birth to 21 days but not thereafter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increases in intestinal dimensions provide growing dogs with a greater capacity for digestion and absorption. Changes in mucosal architecture and cell populations coincided with shifts in dietary inputs. These findings may assist in the diagnosis of small intestinal diseases and nutritional responses during growth and development of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:618–626)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether intestinal dimensions and nutrient absorption are influenced by different types of dietary fiber.

Animals

10 adult Beagles of both sexes.

Procedure

Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed a diet with fermentable fibers (beet pulp and oligofructose) or a nonfermentable fiber (cellulose) for 6 weeks. Effects of the diets on small intestinal dimensions were measured, and transport rates for glucose and proline were determined. Kinetics of glucose and proline uptake were defined in the proximal and middle regions of the small intestine, respectively.

Results

Small intestines of dogs fed fermentable fiber had 28% more nominal surface area and 37% more mucosal mass, were 35% heavier, and had 95% higher capacity for carrier-mediated glucose uptake than those of dogs fed a diet with cellulose. Differences were more pronounced in the proximal portion of the intestine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Diets containing fermentable fibers increase small intestinal dimensions and the capacity for nutrient absorption in dogs. These changes may reduce the risk of enteric infections or aid in treatment of intestinal diseases, particularly those involving reduced nutrient absorption.(Am J Vet Res 1999;60:354–358)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure concentrations of sucrose in the serum of captive dolphins after oral administration of a sucrose solution and determine the suitability of this method for use as a test to detect gastric ulcers.

Animals—8 adult captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from the ventral fluke vein of dolphins before and 45 minutes after oral administration of 500 mL of solution containing 25 or 50 g of sucrose; oral administration was achieved by use of gastric intubation. Serum was separated, diluted in a solution of 90% acetonitrile-to10% water that contained 10 ng of an internal standard (trichlormethiazide)/μL, mixed, and centrifuged. Supernatant was analyzed by use of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

Results—Serum sucrose concentrations of dolphins were at or less than the limits of detection before oral administration. Values after administration of sucrose solution varied among dolphins and were higher and more variable after administration of 50 g, compared with concentrations after administration of 25 g.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum sucrose concentrations in samples collected during routine health evaluations of captive dolphins can be reliably measured by use of LC-MS-MS. Correlating serum sucrose concentrations with endoscopic observations of the gastric mucosa of dolphins will validate this approach for use in screening for the prevalence and severity of gastric ulcers and determining the efficacy of treatment regimens.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure activities of digestive enzymes during postnatal development in dogs.

Sample Population—Gastrointestinal tract tissues obtained from 110 Beagles ranging from neonatal to adult dogs.

Procedure—Pepsin and lipase activities were measured in gastric contents, and amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities were measured in small intestinal contents and pancreatic tissue. Activities of lactase, sucrase, 4 peptidases, and enteropeptidase were assayed in samples of mucosa obtained from 3 regions of the small intestine.

Results—Gastric pH was low at all ages. Pepsin was not detected until day 21, and activity increased between day 63 and adulthood. Activities of amylase and lipase in contents of the small intestine and pancreatic tissue were lower during suckling than after weaning. Activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin did not vary among ages for luminal contents, whereas activities associated with pancreatic tissue decreased between birth and adulthood for trypsin but increased for chymotrypsin. Lactase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activities were highest at birth, whereas the activities of sucrase and the 4 peptidases increased after birth. Enteropeptidase was detected only in the proximal region of the small intestine at all ages.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Secretions in the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the duodenum, enzymes in milk, and other digestive mechanisms compensate for low luminal activities of pancreatic enzymes during the perinatal period. Postnatal changes in digestive secretions influence nutrient availability, concentrations of signaling molecules, and activity of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit pathogens. Matching sources of nutrients to digestive abilities will improve the health of dogs during development. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:627–634)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research