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  • Author or Editor: Ramaswamy M. Chidambaram x
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Abstract

Objective—To characterize the in vitro response of equine cecal longitudinal smooth muscle (CLSM) to endothelin (ET)-1 and assess the role of ETA and ETB receptors in those ET-1–induced responses.

Animals—36 horses without gastrointestinal tract disease.

Procedure—To determine cumulative concentrationresponse relationships, CLSM strips were suspended in tissue baths containing graded concentrations of ET-1 (10–9 to 10–6M) with or without BQ-123 (ETA receptor antagonist); with or without IRL-1038 (ETB receptor antagonist); or with both antagonists at concentrations of 10–9, 10–7, and 10–5M. To determine the percentage change in baseline tension of CLSM, the areas under the curve during the 3-minute periods before and after addition of each dose were compared . Also, the effects of ET-1 and a combination of selective ETA and ETB receptor antagonists on electrically evoked contractions were studied.

Results—ET-1 caused sustained increases in CLSM tension in a concentration-dependent manner. Contractile responses to ET-1 were not significantly inhibited by either BQ-123 or IRL-1038 alone at any concentration; however, responses were significantly inhibited by exposure to the antagonists together at a concentration of 10–5M. Electrical field stimulation did not change the spontaneous contractile activity of CLSM and did not significantly alter the tissue response to ET-1, BQ-123, or IRL-1038.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ET-1 has a contractile effect on equine CLSM that is mediated via ETA and ETB receptors. In vitro spontaneous contractions of equine CLSM apparently originate in the smooth muscle and not the enteric nervous system. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1202–1208)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare plasma endothelin (ET)- like immunoreactivity between healthy horses and those with naturally acquired gastrointestinal tract disorders.

Animals—29 healthy horses and 142 horses with gastrointestinal tract disorders.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected from healthy horses and from horses with gastrointestinal tract disorders prior to treatment. Magnitude and duration of abnormal clinical signs were recorded, and clinical variables were assessed via thorough physical examinations. Plasma concentrations of ET-like immunoreactivity were measured by use of a radioimmunoassay for human endothelin-1, and CBC and plasma biochemical analyses were performed.

Results—Plasma ET-like immunoreactivity concentration was significantly increased in horses with gastrointestinal tract disorders, compared with healthy horses. Median plasma concentration of ET-like immunoreactivity was 1.80 pg/ml (range, 1.09 to 3.2 pg/ml) in healthy horses. Plasma ET-like immunoreactivity was greatest in horses with strangulating largeintestinal obstruction (median, 10.02 pg/ml; range, 3.8 to 22.62 pg/ml), peritonitis (9.19 pg/ml; 7.89 to 25.83 pg/ml), and enterocolitis (8.89 pg/ml; 6.30 to 18.36 pg/ml). Concentration of ET-like immunoreactivity was significantly associated with survival, PCV, and duration of signs of pain. However, correlations for associations with PCV and duration of pain were low.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with gastrointestinal tract disorders have increased plasma concentrations of ET-like immunoreactivity, compared with healthy horses. The greatest values were detected in horses with large-intestinal strangulating obstructions, peritonitis, and enterocolitis. This suggests a potential involvement of ET in the pathogenesis of certain gastrointestinal tract disorders in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:454–458)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare plasma and synovial fluid endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in clinically normal horses and horses with joint disease.

Animals—36 horses with joint disease, and 15 horses without joint disease.

Procedure—Horses with joint disease were assigned to 1 of the 3 groups (ie, synovitis, degenerative joint disease [DJD], or joint sepsis groups) on the basis of findings on clinical and radiographic examination and synovial fluid analysis. Endothelin-1 and NO concentrations were measured in plasma from blood samples, collected from the jugular vein and ipsilateral cephalic or saphenous vein of the limb with an affected or unaffected joint, as well as in synovial fluid samples obtained via arthrocentesis from the involved joint.

Results—Plasma ET-1 concentrations between affected and unaffected groups were not significantly different. Median concentration and concentration range of ET-1 in synovial fluid obtained from the joint sepsis group (35.830 pg/mL, 7.926 to 86.614 pg/mL; n = 7) were significantly greater than values from the synovitis (17.531 pg/mL, 0.01 to 46.908 pg/mL; 18), DJD (22.858 pg/mL, 0.01 to 49.990 pg/mL; 10), and unaffected (10.547 pg/mL, 0.01 to 35.927 pg/mL; 10) groups. Plasma and synovial fluid NO concentrations between affected and unaffected groups were not significantly different.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endothelin-1 is locally synthesized in the joints of horses with various types of joint disease. Synovial fluid concentrations of ET-1 varied among horses with joint disease, with concentrations significantly higher in the synovial fluid of horses with joint sepsis. These results indicate that ET-1 may play a role in the pathophysiologic mechanism of joint disease in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1648–1654)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research