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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine changes in dimensions of feline skin samples as a result of histologic processing and to identify factors that contributed to changes in dimensions of skin samples after sample collection.

SAMPLE Cadavers of 12 clinically normal cats.

PROCEDURES Skin samples were obtained bilaterally from 3 locations (neck, thorax, and tibia) of each cadaver; half of the thoracic samples included underlying muscle. Length, width, and depth were measured at 5 time points (before excision, after excision, after application of ink to mark tissue margins, after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 36 hours, and after completion of histologic processing and staining with H&E stain). Measurements obtained after sample collection were compared with measurements obtained before excision.

RESULTS At the final time point, tissue samples had decreased in length (mean decrease, 32.40%) and width (mean decrease, 34.21%) and increased in depth (mean increase, 54.95%). Tissue from the tibia had the most shrinkage in length and width and that from the neck had the least shrinkage. Inclusion of underlying muscle on thoracic skin samples did not affect the degree of change in dimensions.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, each step during processing from excision to formalin fixation and histologic processing induced changes in tissue dimensions, which were manifested principally as shrinkage in length and width and increase in depth. Most of the changes occured during histologic processing. Inclusion of muscle did not affect thoracic skin shrinkage. Shrinkage should be a consideration when interpreting surgical margins in clinical cases. 945)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To assess the accuracy of current antemortem and postmortem techniques for determining tracheal luminal stenosis.


15 dogs.


Percentage of tracheal luminal stenosis (PTLS) was determined by 6 methods, using measurements obtained by radiography, tracheoscopy, and necropsy after selected tracheostomy techniques were performed. To calculate PTLS, dorsoventral tracheal diameter was measured from preoperative and postoperative lateral cervical radiographic views. Preoperative or normal tracheal segments adjacent to the stenotic area were used to obtain normal tracheal diameter measurements. Planimetrically determined cross-sectional area (CSA), obtained from pre- and postoperative tracheoscopic photographs, was used to calculate PTLS. The CSA of tracheal specimens obtained at necropsy was determined, using the formula for an ellipse. Percentage of luminal stenosis was calculated, using CSA of the stenotic site and of segments craniad and caudad to the site obtained at necropsy or at surgery. All methods were compared with the control method of planimetrically determined CSA of sections obtained at necropsy of the tracheostomy and segments craniad and caudad to the site.


Correlation was poor for radiographic and tracheoscopic techniques (r = 0.146 to 0.458, P > 0.05) The formula for an ellipse accurately predicted PTLS when measurements obtained at surgery (r = 0.516, P = 0.049) or segments craniad and caudad (r = 0.853, P < 0.001) to the site were used.


Antemortem methods of assessing PTLS did not correlate with control planimetric methods. Methods using CSA determined by tracheal diameter were weakly correlated to control planimetric techniques.

Clinical Relevance

Accurate measurement of the degree of tracheal stenosis cannot be made in clinical patients using current techniques. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1051–1054)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Long-term follow-up information pertaining to 162 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone was collected from 17 veterinary institutions. The majority (72.5%) of dogs died or were euthanatized because of problems documented to be related to metastases. The first clinically apparent sites of metastasis were the lungs (60.8% of total), the skeleton (5.2%), or both (4.6%). A Kaplan-Meier survivorship distribution was plotted on the basis of available survival time data in all 162 dogs. The mean and median survival times were estimated to be 19.8 and 19.2 weeks, respectively, and the 1- and 2-year survival rates were estimated to be 11.5 and 2.0% respectively.

Statistically significant relationships were not found between survival time and reporting institution, gender, site of primary tumor, whether the primary tumor was proximally or distally located, whether the primary tumor was located in the forelimb or hind limb, whether presurgical biopsy was performed, and whether death was tumor related. A significant (P < 0.01) quadratic relationship was found between age and survival time. Survival time was longest in dogs 7 to 10 years old and was shorter in older and younger dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association