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Gram-negative bacterial infections were documented in 6 neonatal New World camelids (5 llamas and 1 alpaca). The organisms isolated from blood before death or from multiple organs after death were Escherichia coli (n = 3), Actinobacillus sp (n = 1), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). Only 2 crias survived, and 1 became blind secondary to retinal detachment and ocular inflammation, which developed after treatment for bacterial infection.

Abnormal events during the perinatal period (prematurity, dystocia, cesarean section, weak at birth) were reported in all 6 crias. Signs of depression, convulsions, and/or coma were observed in all animals. Diarrhea and respiratory distress were also noticed in the 3 crias that died shortly after admission.

Serum immunoglobulins were assessed, but without the benefit of a stall-side test specific for llama immunoglobulins. All crias were suspected to have poor transfer of maternal immunoglobulins. Hemograms and serum biochemical values prior to the initiation of treatment were obtained on 5 of the 6 crias. Total nucleated cells ranged from 1,400 to 23,100 cells/μl. Four of the 5 crias had a left shift, and 2 crias had toxic neutrophils. Serum glucose concentrations, measured in 5 of 6 crias, ranged from 83 to 293 mg/dl. Serum creatinine values were high in 2 of 5 crias, 1 of which had acute tubular necrosis. Three crias with high serum electrolyte (sodium, chloride, or potassium) values subsequently died. Arterial blood gas values were assessed in 3 crias, 1 of which had respiratory alkalosis and mild hypoxemia.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Historical, physical, and clinicopathologic findings in 25 septicemic calves were examined to further characterize the clinical features of naturally induced bovine neonatal septicemia. Owners often reported single organ disease, but physical examination revealed multiple organ disease in more than half the calves. A third of the calves were admitted as representative of a herd problem. Laboratory findings were variable, but commonly included changes in the differential WBC count and plasma fibrinogen concentration. Low serum immunoglobulin concentrations were found in approximately half the calves.

Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism, but gram-positive infections were found in 10%, and polymicrobial infections in 28%, of the calves. Previous antimicrobial administration did not appear to affect culture yield. At necropsy, lesions were seen in multiple organs in most calves. The respiratory and gastrointestinal systems were most commonly affected. Few of the calves had umbilical infections. The survival rate was poor (< 12%).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To assess veterinarian engagement with owners of poultry and livestock in urban and peri-urban areas (UPAs) of 4 western states, to evaluate the knowledge and experience of veterinarians in UPAs for treating domestic poultry and livestock, and to identify barriers to the provision of veterinary services to backyard poultry and small-scale livestock operations.


880 veterinarians in UPAs.


2,400 members of the veterinary medical associations of California, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington who worked in metropolitan areas with a population > 5,000 people were randomly selected and invited to participate in a needs assessment survey. Response data were analyzed with univariable logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis.


880 (37%) invitees completed or partially completed the survey. Most respondents self-reported working in UPAs (686/825 [83%]) and companion animal only (n = 551) or predominant (211) practices. Although most (656/863 [76%]) respondents perceived an increase in backyard poultry and livestock in their practice areas, few were actively treating such animals primarily because of a lack of facilities, interest, or experience. Most respondents believed veterinarians have an important role in ensuring public health and preventing zoonotic disease.


Backyard poultry and livestock are increasing in popularity in UPAs of 4 western states, and veterinarians are needed to provide services to such animals. Further research and continuing education are necessary to encourage practitioners in UPAs to engage with owners of backyard poultry and livestock to ensure the health and welfare of those animals and guard public health. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020;257:196-209)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association