Objective—To determine the incidence and type of alterations in heart rate (HR), peak systolic blood pressure (PSBP), and serum biochemical variables (total bilirubin, BUN, and creatinine concentrations) associated with IV administration of ionic-iodinated contrast (IIC), nonionic-iodinated contrast (NIC), and gadolinium dimeglumine (GD) contrast media in anesthetized dogs.
Procedures—HR and PSBP were recorded at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes for untreated control dogs and dogs that received IIC, NIC, or GD contrast medium. The development of an HR of < 60 beats/min or > 130 beats/min that included a ≥ 20% change from baseline was considered a response. The development of PSBP of < 90 mm Hg or > 160 mm Hg that included a ≥ 20% change from baseline was considered a response. Pre- and postcontrast serum biochemical values were recorded.
Results—Of dogs receiving IIC medium, 3% (3/91) had a response in HR and 4% (4/91) had a response in PSBP at ≥ 1 time points. None of the dogs receiving NIC medium had a response in HR; 1 of 16 had a response in PSBP. Of dogs receiving GD contrast medium, 1% (1/92) had a response in HR and 4% (4/92) had a response in PSBP. Of control dogs, 2% (2/81) had a response in HR and 4% (3/81) had a response in PSBP. No serum biochemical alterations were observed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of contrast media in anesthetized dogs caused moderate bradycardia, tachycardia, hypotension, or hypertension.
Objective—To determine the incidence and type of alterations in heart rate (HR), peak systolic blood pressure (PSBP), and serum biochemical variables (serum total bilirubin, BUN, and creatinine concentrations) associated with IV administration of ionic-iodinated contrast (IIC), nonionic-iodinated contrast (NIC), and gadolinium (GD) contrast media in anesthetized cats.
Procedures—HR and PSBP were recorded at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes for untreated control cats and cats that received IIC, NIC, or GD contrast medium. The development of HR < 100 beats/min or > 200 beats/min that included a ≥ 20% change from baseline was considered a response. The development of PSBP of < 90 mm Hg or > 170 mm Hg that included a ≥ 20% change from baseline was considered a response. Pre- and postcontrast serum biochemical values were recorded.
Results—Of cats receiving IIC medium, 2% (1/60) had a response in HR at ≥ 1 time point. Of cats receiving IIC medium, 7% (4/60) had a response in PSBP. None of the cats receiving NIC medium had a response in HR; 2 of 12 had a response in PSBP. Of cats receiving GD contrast medium, 6% (5/83) had a response in HR and 8% (7/83) had a response in PSBP. None of the control cats had a response in HR or PSBP. No serum biochemical alterations were observed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of iodine and GD contrast media in anesthetized cats was associated with changes in HR and PSBP.
Case Description—Acute severe systemic reactions developed during IV administration of an ionic iodinated contrast agent (iothalamate meglumine) in 2 dogs undergoing contrast-enhanced computed tomography.
Clinical Findings—Both dogs developed marked changes in heart rate and systolic arterial blood pressure during or immediately after IV administration of the contrast agent. The first dog became profoundly hypertensive and bradycardic with poor oxygenation, apparent bronchospasm, and prolonged diarrhea. The second dog became hypotensive and tachycardic with erythema on the ventral aspect of the abdomen and pelvic limbs, periocular edema, and diarrhea.
Treatment and Outcome—Both dogs were treated for shock by means of IV fluid administration, and anesthesia was discontinued. The first dog was placed on a ventilator to improve oxygenation but was hypertensive and unresponsive for 6.5 hours following contrast agent administration. Bloody diarrhea persisted once consciousness was regained. The dog was discharged 3 days after contrast agent administration, and diarrhea resolved 15 days later. The second dog responded to phenylephrine administration, but urine output appeared low immediately following recovery from anesthesia. Urine output was normal the following day, and the dog was released 36 hours after contrast administration with no residual adverse effects.
Clinical Relevance—Findings highlighted the potential risk for severe reactions associated with IV administration of ionic iodinated contrast agents in dogs. Both hypertensive and hypotensive responses were seen. Supportive care for systemic manifestations was effective in these 2 dogs, and extended hospitalization was not necessary.
Objective—To compare the use of radiography and fluoroscopy for detection and grading of tracheal collapse in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—62 dogs with tracheal collapse.
Procedures—For each dog, tracheal collapse was confirmed fluoroscopically and lateral cervical and thoracic radiographic views were reviewed. A board-certified radiologist (who was unaware of the dogs' clinical history) evaluated the cervical, thoracic inlet, thoracic, carinal, and main stem bronchial regions in all fluoroscopic videos and radiographic images for evidence of collapse. Cervical, thoracic inlet, thoracic, and carinal regions in both radio-graphic and fluoroscopic studies were graded for collapse (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% decrease in diameter).
Results—Lateral cervical and thoracic radiographic images were available for 54 dogs, and inspiratory and expiratory lateral cervical and thoracic radiographic images were available for 8 dogs. For detection of tracheal collapse, assessment of radiographic views was sensitive and had the best negative predictive value in the cervical and thoracic inlet regions. Assessment of radiographic views was most specific and had the best positive predictive value in the thoracic inlet, thoracic, carina, and main stem bronchial regions. Radiography underestimated the degree of collapse in all areas. Review of inspiratory and expiratory views improved the accuracy of radiography for tracheal collapse diagnosis only slightly.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with fluoroscopy, radiography underestimated the frequency and degree of tracheal collapse. However, radiography appears to be useful for screening dogs with potential tracheal collapse.
Objective—To compare imaging findings in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) that did or did not have neurologic abnormalities.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—157 dogs with PDH that did (n = 73) or did not (84) have neurologic abnormalities.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for the presence and nature of clinical signs of CNS disease, and computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images were reviewed for evidence of a pituitary tumor.
Results—60 of the 84 (71%) dogs without neurologic abnormalities and 48 of the 73 (66%) dogs with neurologic abnormalities had a detectable pituitary tumor. However, 17 of the 84 (20%) dogs without neurologic abnormalities had a pituitary macrotumor (ie, a tumor ≥ 10 mm in height), and 41 of the 73 (56%) dogs with neurologic abnormalities did not have a detectable pituitary tumor or had a pituitary microtumor. Vague signs of CNS dysfunction (ie, lethargy, inappetence, and mental dullness) were more specific for detection of pituitary macrotumors than were CNS-specific signs (ie, seizure or blindness).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that there was no apparent relationship between a pituitary tumor and development of neurologic abnormalities in dogs with PDH. In addition, neurologic abnormalities in dogs with pituitary macrotumors were often vague (ie, lethargy, inappetence, and mental dullness).
Objective—To determine the degree of fluctuation in tracheal dimensions between forced inspiration and passive expiration in healthy dogs of various sizes.
Animals—10 client-owned dogs with no evidence of respiratory disease or tracheal collapse.
Procedures—Anesthetized dogs underwent a computed tomographic examination during forced inspiration and induced but passive expiration to assess tracheal dimensions. Tracheal height, width, and cross-sectional area were measured at inspiration and expiration, and percentage change in dimension was calculated for each variable.
Results—Measurements were acquired in 10 dogs that ranged in body weight from 3.5 to 47.8 kg. Tracheal cross-sectional area at inspiration and expiration was associated with body weight at all 3 tracheal regions. The percentage change in tracheal height and cross-sectional area was associated with body weight in the cervical but not the thoracic-inlet or thoracic regions. The tracheal cross-sectional area changed by as much as 24.2% (mean, 5.5%), 20.0% (mean, 6.0%), and 18.6% (mean, 6.0%) in the cervical, thoracic-inlet, and thoracic regions, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The change in tracheal cross-sectional area from inspiration to expiration was as great as 24% in healthy dogs, and the area was associated with body weight. Respiratory fluctuations appeared to result in changes in tracheal dimension during respiration similar to those reported for humans.
Case Description—An 11-year-old castrated male Tibetan Mastiff was evaluated because of a visibly enlarged blood vessel and progressively worsening swelling of the right hind limb.
Clinical Findings—On physical examination, the right hind limb was markedly larger than the left hind limb and the dog was minimally weight bearing on the affected limb. A bruit was auscultated over the affected region. Ultrasonography of the tarsal region of the right hind limb revealed an artery with turbulent flow that communicated with venous drainage. A CT scan confirmed the presence of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM).
Treatment and Outcome—Embolization of the AVM with a liquid embolic agent (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide) was elected. An arteriogram was performed prior to treatment and delineated the vessels that were targeted for embolization. The embolic agent was infused into the AVM, and a postinjection arteriogram confirmed complete occlusion of the AVM nidus and normal arterial flow to the paw with subsequent normal venous drainage. The circumference of the abnormal paw was 51 cm before the procedure and 22.9 cm at 4 weeks after the procedure. Additionally, the gait of the dog dramatically improved. No complications associated with the procedure developed.
Clinical Relevance—Peripheral AVMs in dogs are uncommon, and described treatment options are limited and generally associated with serious morbidity. A liquid embolic agent, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, was successfully administered in this case, and no morbidity was observed secondary to the procedure. Clinical success was characterized by substantial improvement in limb swelling and marked improvement in the gait of the dog.
Objective—To evaluate pretreatment clinical and laboratory
findings in dogs with naturally occurring primary
Animals—210 dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism
and 200 randomly selected, age-matched control dogs
that did not have primary hyperparathyroidism.
Procedure—Medical records for dogs with primary
hyperparathyroidism were reviewed for signalment;
clinical features; and results of clinicopathologic testing,
serum parathyroid hormone assays, and diagnostic
Results—Mean age of the dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism
was 11.2 years (range, 6 to 17 years). The
most common clinical signs were attributable to urolithiasis
or urinary tract infection (ie, straining to urinate,
increased frequency of urination, and hematuria). Most
dogs (149 [71%]) did not have any observable abnormalities
on physical examination. All dogs had hypercalcemia,
and most (136 [65%]) had hypophosphatemia.
Overall, 200 of the 210 (95%) dogs had BUN and serum
creatinine concentrations within or less than the reference
range, and serum parathyroid hormone concentration
was within reference limits in 135 of 185 (73%)
dogs in which it was measured. Urolithiasis was identified
in 65 (31%) dogs, and urinary tract infection was
diagnosed in 61 (29%). Mean serum total calcium concentration
for the control dogs was significantly lower
than mean concentration for the dogs with primary
hyperparathyroidism, but mean BUN and serum creatinine
concentrations for the control dogs were both significantly
higher than concentrations for the dogs with
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that urolithiasis and urinary tract infection may be associated
with hypercalcemia in dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism,
but that development of renal insufficiency
is uncommon. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:
Objective—To characterize a genetic component to
cricopharyngeal dysfunction (CD) in Golden Retrievers.
Procedure—The CD phenotype was determined by
videofluoroscopy, and dogs were classified as affected
if the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) did not open,
if there were morphologic abnormalities of the UES, or
if opening of the UES was delayed for ≥ 6 videofluoroscopic
frames (0.2 seconds) after closure of the
epiglottis. All survey radiographic and videofluoroscopic
studies were reviewed by the same radiologist.
Results—Of the 117 dogs (47 males and 70 females)
with a CD phenotype determined via videofluoroscopy,
21 dogs (18.0%) had abnormalities of the
UES (affected). Of these 21 dogs, 9 were males
(19.1% of all males) and 12 were females (17.1% of all
females). The heritability of CD in a threshold model
was estimated as 0.61, which established that CD
could be passed from parent to offspring. Results of
complex segregation analysis suggested that a single
recessive allele of large effect contributed to the
expression of this disease in Golden Retrievers.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The determination
that CD is inherited in Golden Retrievers is an
important step in providing information for veterinarians
attending dogs with this disorder. Breeders also
require this information to make informed breeding
decisions. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:344–349)
Objective—To determine effects of regional variation, interobserver variability, and vessel selection on quantitative vascular variables derived by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) of the brain of clinically normal dogs.
Animals—14 adult dogs with no evidence of CNS dysfunction.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 4 groups, and DCE-CT was performed at the level of the frontal lobe, rostral portion of the parietal-temporal lobes, caudal portions of the parietal-temporal lobes, or occipital lobe–cerebellum for groups 1 to 4, respectively. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and permeability in gray and white matter for both a large and small artery were calculated and compared. Values among 3 observers and 4 regions of the brain were calculated and compared.
Results—Significant interobserver variability was detected for CBF and permeability in white matter. Values calculated for large and small arteries were correlated for CBV and CBF but not for permeability. Overall mean ± SD for CBF, CBV, and permeability in gray matter was 53.5 ± 27.7 mL/min/100 g, 2.9 ± 1.4 mL/100 g, and 1.4 ± 2.2 mL/min/100 g, respectively. Mean for CBF, CBV, and permeability in white matter was 44.2 ± 28.5 mL/min/100 g, 2.5 ± 1.5 mL/100 g, and 0.9 ± 0.7 mL/min/100 g, respectively. Values did not differ significantly among brain regions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant regional variations were not detected for quantitative vascular variables in the brain of clinically normal dogs. However, interobserver variability and vessel selection have an important role in variable estimation.