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To describe clinical presentation, treatment, and short- and long-term outcomes of goats diagnosed with neoplasia.
46 goats with a definitive diagnosis of ≥ 1 neoplastic process admitted over a 15-year period.
Medical records for all goats admitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital over a 15-year period were reviewed to identify animals diagnosed with neoplasia. Signalment, presenting complaint, duration of clinical signs, diagnostic testing, treatment, and short-term outcomes were recorded. When available, long-term follow-up data were collected via email or telephone interview with owners.
46 goats with 58 neoplasms were identified. The prevalence of neoplasia within the study population was 3.2%. The most commonly diagnosed neoplasms were squamous cell carcinoma, thymoma, and mammary carcinoma. The Saanen breed was the most common breed noted in the study population. Evidence of metastasis was found in 7% of the goats. Long-term follow-up was available in 5 goats with mammary neoplasia that underwent bilateral mastectomy. No evidence of mass regrowth or metastasis was noted in any of the goats 5 to 34 months postoperatively.
Goats are increasingly treated as companion rather than strictly production animals, making it important for veterinarians to provide more evidence-based and advanced clinical care. This study provided a clinical overview of presentation, treatment, and outcome for goats diagnosed with neoplasia and highlighted the challenges associated with the wide variety of neoplastic processes affecting goats.
A 2-month-old 12.0-kg (26.4-lb) sexually intact male alpaca was evaluated for a 1-week history of progressive forelimb lameness with no known history of trauma.
The cria had toe-touching lameness in the right forelimb with a firm swelling at the distal dorsomedial metacarpal region. Signs of pain were elicited on palpation of the swollen region. There was no associated wound or draining tract. Radiographic examination revealed soft tissue swelling and osteomyelitis of the distal portion of the third metacarpal bone with a possible medial cortical sequestrum.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
The cria was hospitalized and treated with meloxicam (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 72 h) and ceftiofur sodium administered SC (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], q 12 h for 8 days) and by means of regional limb perfusion (1.25 mg/kg [0.57 mg/lb], IV, q 48 h for 8 days). Lameness and swelling improved, and the cria was discharged from the hospital with meloxicam (1 mg/kg, PO, q 72 h for 2 weeks) and ceftiofur crystalline free acid (1.5 mg/kg [0.68 mg/kg], SC, q 5 d for 2 weeks). At a recheck examination 17 days later, there was radiographic evidence of a well-defined 3.4 × 0.3-cm osseous sequestrum in the distal aspect of the affected third metacarpal bone. The owner declined further treatment and elected to monitor the cria at home. One year later, radiographic examination revealed nearly complete resolution of the sequestrum.
Results for this patient suggested that osseous sequestra in some camelids may resolve following medical treatment without surgical intervention.
This article provides information to assist practitioners in the diagnosis, medical, and surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in miniature pigs. The article focuses primarily on pigs managed as pets because production swine rarely undergo intensive treatment for urolithiasis. As much as possible, the information in this article is based on published literature, but given the limited number of publications addressing obstructive urolithiasis in pigs, some information is based on the authors’ clinical experience. Medical and surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis of pigs is often similar to management in ruminant and small animal species, but differences in swine anatomy, handling, and temperament create unique challenges. Pigs tend to be more difficult to restrain and examine than other livestock and often require heavy sedation or anesthesia to facilitate physical examination and basic diagnostic procedures. Because pigs are monogastrics, some oral treatments used in small animals may be used effectively in pigs. Clinicians should follow AMDUCA and consult the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank prior to extralabel drug use because pet pigs are still considered a major food-producing species in the United States.
This article provides information to help US-based practitioners develop differential diagnoses for, and recognize foreign animal diseases associated with, dermatologic lesions in small ruminants. Sheep and goat pox are currently considered foreign animal diseases (in the United States) and may cause lesions similar to other endemic diseases of small ruminants including orf, ulcerative dermatosis, bluetongue, and dermatophilosis. Any cases involving unusual dermatologic lesions associated with high morbidity and/or mortality warrant reporting to governmental authorities including USDA APHIS or state regulatory veterinarians for herd or flock investigations. Vigilance on the part of livestock veterinarians and small ruminant producers is of paramount importance in preventing the entry and spread of economically devastating foreign animal diseases.