Case Description—4 dogs were treated with dexrazoxane for known or suspected doxorubicin extravasation. Records were retrospectively reviewed. Doses and number of doses of dexrazoxane were variable. Dexrazoxane was administered within 2 hours after known extravasation in 3 dogs and 48 hours after suspected extravasation in 1 dog. Additional medical treatments included tissue cooling in all dogs, topically administered dimethyl sulfoxide ointment in 3, and orally administered piroxicam in 1.
Clinical Findings—Mild erythema and edema at the extravasation site developed within 1 to 6 days after extravasation in the 3 dogs that received dexrazoxane within 2 hours after extravasation. Extensive tissue necrosis occurred in the dog treated 48 hours after suspected extravasation.
Treatment and Outcome—Only the dog with severe tissue necrosis required surgical intervention. Lesions in the other 3 dogs resolved with medical management alone. All dogs survived the event.
Clinical Relevance—To date, use of dexrazoxane in the management of doxorubicin extravasation has not been reported in dogs. Treatment was successful in 3 of 4 patients. The most effective dosage and timing of administration are unknown; however, there is evidence to suggest that administration within 6 hours after the event is warranted. Further studies are needed to confirm efficacy and to optimize use of this drug in the prevention and treatment of anthracycline extravasation injury in veterinary patients.
Objective—To determine the quantity (concentration) and quality (molecular weight) of synovial fluid hyaluronan with respect to presence and severity of osteoarthritis in stifle joints of dogs.
Animals—21 purpose-bred dogs and 6 clinically affected large-breed dogs (cranial cruciate ligament [CrCL] disease with secondary osteoarthritis).
Procedures—Research dogs underwent arthroscopic surgery in 1 stifle joint to induce osteoarthritis via CrCL transection (CrCLt; n = 5 stifle joints), femoral condylar articular cartilage groove creation (GR; 6), or meniscal release (MR; 5); 5 had sham surgery (SH) performed. Contralateral stifle joints (n = 21) were used as unoperated control joints. Synovial fluid was obtained from research dogs at time 0 and 12 weeks after surgery and from clinically affected dogs prior to surgery. All dogs were assessed for lameness, radiographic signs of osteoarthritis, and pathologic findings on arthroscopy as well as for quantity and quality of hyaluronan.
Results—Clinically affected dogs had significantly greater degrees of pathologic findings, compared with dogs with surgically induced osteoarthritis (ie, those with CrCLt, GR, and MR stifle joints), and with respect to lameness scores, radiographic signs of osteoarthritis, pathologic findings on arthroscopy, and synovial fluid hyaluronan concentration. Synovial fluid from stifle joints of dogs with surgically induced osteoarthritis had hyaluronan bands at 35 kd on western blots that synovial fluid from SH and clinically affected stifle joints did not.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Synovial fluid hyaluronan quantity and quality were altered in stifle joints of dogs with osteoarthritis, compared with control stifle joints. A specific hyaluronan protein fragment may be associated with early pathologic changes in affected joints.
Objective—To determine the effects of intratumoral injection of a hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate on local and systemic platinum concentrations and systemic toxicosis.
Animals—5 dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas (STSs).
Procedures—For each dog, approximately 1.5 mL of hyaluronan nanocarrier conjugated with 20 mg of cisplatin was injected into an external STS. Blood samples were collected immediately before (0 hours) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 24, and 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection for pharmacokinetic analyses. Urine samples were obtained at 0 and at 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection for urinalysis. Each treated STS and its sentinel lymph nodes were surgically removed 96 hours after the hyaluronan-cisplatin injection. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure platinum concentrations in blood samples, tumors, and lymph nodes.
Results—No tissue reactions were detected 96 hours after hyaluronan-cisplatin injection. Mean ± SD area under the curve, peak concentration, and terminal half-life for unbound (plasma) and total (serum) platinum were 774.6 ± 221.1 ng•h/mL and 3,562.1 ± 2,031.1 ng•h/mL, 56.5 ± 20.9 ng/mL and 81.6 ± 40.4 ng/mL, and 33.6 ± 16.1 hours and 51.2 ± 29.1 hours, respectively. Platinum concentrations ranged from 3,325 to 8,229 ng/g in STSs and 130 to 6,066 ng/g in STS-associated lymph nodes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intratumoral injection of the hyaluronan-cisplatin nanoconjugate was well tolerated in treated dogs. Following intratumoral hyaluronan-cisplatin injection, platinum concentration was 1,000-fold and 100-fold greater within treated tumors and tumor-draining lymphatics, respectively, compared with that in plasma.