Objective—To determine the influence of stifle joint flexion angle, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) integrity, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and cranial tibial subluxation on the distance between the location of the origin and insertion of the CrCL (CrCLd) in dogs.
Samples—4 pairs of pelvic limbs from adult dog cadavers weighing 23 to 34 kg.
Procedures—Mediolateral projection radiographs of each stifle joint were obtained with the joint flexed at 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150°. Radiopaque markers were then placed at the sites of origin and insertion of the CrCL. Afterward, radiography was repeated in the same manner, before and after CrCL transection, with and without TPLO. Following CrCL transection, radiographs were obtained before and after inducing overt cranial tibial subluxation. Interobserver variation in measuring the CrCLd without fiduciary markers was assessed. The effect of CrCL integrity, cranial tibial subluxation, flexion angle, and TPLO on CrCLd was also determined.
Results—Interobserver agreement was strong, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.859. The CrCLd was significantly shorter (< 1 mm) at 90° of flexion; otherwise, flexion angle had no effect on CrCLd. Cranial tibial subluxation caused a 25% to 40% increase in CrCLd. No effect of TPLO on CrCLd was found, regardless of CrCL integrity, forced stifle joint subluxation, or flexion angle.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Overt cranial tibial subluxation in CrCL-deficient stifle joints can be detected on mediolateral projection radiographs by comparing CrCLd on neutral and stressed joint radiographs at joint angles between 105° and 150°, regardless of whether a TPLO has been performed.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of laser treatment on incisional wound healing in ball pythons (Python regius).
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult ball pythons.
PROCEDURES Snakes were sedated, a skin biopsy specimen was collected for histologic examination, and eight 2-cm skin incisions were made in each snake; each incision was closed with staples (day 0). Gross evaluation of all incision sites was performed daily for 30 days, and a wound score was assigned. Four incisions of each snake were treated (5 J/cm2 and a wavelength of 980 nm on a continuous wave sequence) by use of a class 4 laser once daily for 7 consecutive days; the other 4 incisions were not treated. Two excisional skin biopsy specimens (1 control and 1 treatment) were collected from each snake on days 2, 7, 14, and 30 and evaluated microscopically. Scores were assigned for total inflammation, degree of fibrosis, and collagen maturity. Generalized linear models were used to investigate the effect of treatment on each variable.
RESULTS Wound scores for laser-treated incisions were significantly better than scores for control incisions on day 2 but not at other time points. There were no significant differences in necrosis, fibroplasia, inflammation, granuloma formation, or bacterial contamination between control and treatment groups. Collagen maturity was significantly better for the laser-treated incisions on day 14.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in collagen maturity at day 14 but did not otherwise significantly improve healing of skin incisions.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate perioperative morbidity and outcome in dogs and cats undergoing esophageal surgery.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 63 client-owned dogs and 9 client-owned cats.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent esophageal surgery were reviewed for information on signalment, history, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, condition treated, details of surgery, intraoperative complications, and postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up data were obtained via veterinarian and client telephone conversations. The relationship between complications and survival to hospital discharge was evaluated by means of regression analysis.
RESULTS The most common indication for surgical intervention was an esophageal foreign body in dogs (50/63 [79%]) and esophageal stricture in cats (3/9). Complications were documented in 54% (34/63) of dogs and 3 of 9 cats. The most common immediate postoperative complications were respiratory in nature (9 dogs, 1 cat). Partial esophagectomy and resection with anastomosis were significantly associated with the development of immediate postoperative complications in dogs. The most common delayed postoperative complications were persistent regurgitation (7 dogs) and esophageal stricture formation (3 dogs, 1 cat). For dogs, a mass lesion and increasing lesion size were significantly associated with the development of delayed postoperative complications. Six dogs (10%) and 1 cat died or were euthanized prior to discharge, and pneumomediastinum and leukopenia were negative prognostic factors for dogs being discharged from the hospital.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study suggested that the short-term prognosis for dogs and cats that survive surgery for treatment of esophageal lesions is favorable, with 90% of patients discharged from the hospital (57/63 dogs; 8/9 cats). However, dogs treated for more extensive esophageal lesions as well as those undergoing esophagectomy or resection and anastomosis were more likely to develop postoperative complications.