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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare dexmedetomidine-ketamine (DK; 0.1 and 10 mg/kg, respectively) with midazolam (M; 1.0 mg/kg) or 0.9% sodium chloride (S; 0.2 mL/kg) administered IM in the forelimb (F) or hindlimb (H) in eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

ANIMALS

20 clinically healthy, captive adult eastern box turtles.

METHODS

In a randomized, blinded, complete crossover study with 1-week washout periods, turtles were administered each of 3 treatments: F-DKS, F-DKM, or H-DKM. Palpebral reflex, muscle tone, and withdrawal responses were serially assessed and used to calculate cumulative sedation scores at each 5-minute time point. The ability to intubate was evaluated. At 60 minutes, atipamezole (1.0 mg/kg) and either flumazenil (F-DKM, H-DKM; 0.05 mg/kg) or 0.9% sodium chloride (F-DKS; 0.5 mL/kg) were administered IM.

RESULTS

All treatments resulted in clinically relevant anesthetic effects. F-DKM produced significantly higher sedation scores than H-DKM or F-DKS at all time points between 10 and 60 minutes (P < .05). Sedation score variability was observed with all treatments with significantly higher variability for H-DKM (P < .05). Intubation was successful in 32, 89, and 11% of turtles in F-DKS, F-DKM, and H-DKM, respectively. Median (range) recovery time was 10 (5–22), 16 (7–45), and 12 (4–28) minutes for F-DKS, F-DKM, and H-DKM, respectively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In eastern box turtles, forelimb dexmedetomidine-ketamine resulted in clinically relevant anesthetic effects that were heightened with the addition of midazolam. Hindlimb administration of midazolam-dexmedetomidine-ketamine resulted in reduced and more variable anesthetic effects compared to forelimb administration, supporting a hepatic first-pass effect.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.

ANIMALS

10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.

PROCEDURES

A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.

RESULTS

SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association