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  • Author or Editor: Rachel E. Long x
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Objective—To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasonographically guided radiofrequency heat ablation of parathyroid masses in dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—11 dogs.

Procedure—In all dogs, either 1 or 2 parathyroid masses were evident ultrasonographically. Dogs were anesthetized, and a 20-gauge over-the-needle catheter was directed into the parathyroid mass via ultrasonographic guidance. Radiofrequency heat was applied to the stylet of the catheter until there was sonographically apparent change to the entire parenchyma of the mass. Serum total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations were monitored daily for 5 days after the ablation procedure and again at 1, 2, and 3-month intervals, if possible. Dogs were monitored for adverse effects.

Results—One treatment was required in 6 dogs, 2 treatments were required in 2 dogs, and treatment was unsuccessful in 3 dogs. Serum total and ionized calcium concentrations were within reference ranges within 2 days of the last procedure in all 8 successfully treated dogs. Serum parathyroid hormone concentration was decreased 24 hours after treatment in all 8 dogs. Hypocalcemia developed in 5 of the 8 successfully treated dogs, all of which required treatment. One dog had a transient voice change. Other adverse effects were not reported.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonographically guided radiofrequency heat ablation of parathyroid masses is a safe and effective alternative to surgery in dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1106–1110)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine interoperator variance in shunt fraction calculation.

Design—Case series.

Sample Population—101 transrectal portoscintigraphic studies.

Procedure—Results of dynamic portoscintigraphic studies were reviewed by 4 radiologists without knowledge of signalment, history, or medical profile. Results were judged to be negative or positive on the basis of the dynamic scan. Composite images were formulated, and hand-drawn regions of interest were determined for the heart and liver. Time-activity curves were generated, time-zero points were selected, curves were integrated during a 10-second interval, and shunt fractions were calculated.

Results—Radiologists were in agreement regarding positive versus negative results for 99 of 101 studies. Interoperator variance in shunt fraction calculation ranged from 0.4 to 59.6%. For 51 studies with positive results, variance ranged from 2.5 to 59.6% (mean ± SD, 22.8 ± 14.5%); differences among reviewers were significant. For 48 studies with negative results, variance in shunt fraction ranged from 0.4 to 25.9% (mean, 5.3 ± 5.8%); significant differences among reviewers were not detected. Shunt fraction calculations were not exactly reproducible among radiologists in 94 and 100% of studies with negative or positive results, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that shunt fraction values are not reproducible among operators. Range in variability was greater in studies with positive results. This factor may be of particular clinical importance in reassessment of patients after incomplete shunt ligation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1116–1119)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare neutralizing antibody response between horses vaccinated against West Nile virus (WNV) and horses that survived naturally occurring infection.

Design—Cross-sectional observational study.

Animals—187 horses vaccinated with a killed WNV vaccine and 37 horses with confirmed clinical WNV infection.

Procedure—Serum was collected from vaccinated horses prior to and 4 to 6 weeks after completion of an initial vaccination series (2 doses) and 5 to 7 months later. Serum was collected from affected horses 4 to 6 weeks after laboratory diagnosis of infection and 5 to 7 months after the first sample was obtained. The IgM capture ELISA, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), and microtiter virus neutralization test were used.

Results—All affected horses had PRNT titers ≥ 1:100 at 4 to 6 weeks after onset of disease, and 90% (18/20) maintained this titer for 5 to 7 months. After the second vaccination, 67% of vaccinated horses had PRNT titers ≥ 1:100 and 14% had titers < 1:10. Five to 7 months later, 33% (28/84) of vaccinated horses had PRNT titers ≥ 1:100, whereas 29% (24/84) had titers < 1:10. Vaccinated and clinically affected horses' end point titers had decreased by 5 to 7 months after vaccination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A portion of horses vaccinated against WNV may respond poorly. Vaccination every 6 months may be indicated in certain horses and in areas of high vector activity. Other preventative methods such as mosquito control are warranted to prevent WNV infection in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:240–245)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association