To characterize the signalment, clinical signs, clinical pathological and histologic findings, and outcome in 8 related Bracchi Italiani with proteinuric kidney disease.
8 client-owned Bracchi Italiani.
Health records submitted to the Bracco Italiano Health Foundation and the Bracco Italiano Club of America between 2012 and 2019 were reviewed for dogs with evidence of nephropathy for which histologic diagnoses were obtained. Pedigree, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results (including microscopic examination of kidney tissue samples collected ante- or postmortem), and outcome were acquired. Results were presented as descriptive statistics.
The most common clinical sign in affected dogs was inappetence. All dogs were proteinuric, and 4 dogs were azotemic. Seven dogs developed clinical signs of kidney disease and were euthanized a median of 75 days postdiagnosis. Six dogs had glomerular amyloidosis, and 1 dog each had nephrosclerosis and nonamyloidotic fibrillar glomerulopathy.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that the clinical presentation may vary in affected dogs, and proteinuria in young or middle-aged Bracchi Italiani should raise the concern for hereditary nephropathy. Prognosis is likely poor once clinical signs are noted.
A 6-year-old sexually intact male Shetland Sheepdog was evaluated by the primary care veterinarian and subsequently referred to the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital at the University of Pennsylvania because of persistent diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss of 5 weeks' duration.
Physical examination by the referring veterinarian revealed tacky mucous membranes and dehydration. Weight loss of approximately 5 kg (11 lb) was reported by the owners, representing approximately 20% of the dog's original body weight. At this time, the dog weighed 19.8 kg (43.5 lb) and had a 5/9 body condition score after the weight loss. Initial
OBJECTIVE To identify factors affecting the diagnostic quality of core needle renal biopsy specimens from dogs with suspected kidney disease.
DESIGN Cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 522 client-owned dogs with suspected kidney disease for which core needle renal biopsy specimens (n = 1,089) were submitted to the International Veterinary Renal Pathology Service for evaluation and inclusion in their database.
PROCEDURES Data regarding dog signalment, clinical variables, biopsy method, needle brand and gauge, biopsy results, and other variables were extracted from the database. Variables were tested for association with 3 outcomes of light microscopic evaluation of core specimens: number of glomeruli per core specimen, obtainment of < 10 glomeruli, and presence or absence of renal medullary tissue.
RESULTS Number of glomeruli per core specimen was significantly associated with needle gauge, dog age, serum creatinine concentration, and degree of proteinuria, whereas biopsy method and submitting hospital were significantly associated with the presence of renal medullary tissue in specimens. Mean numbers of glomeruli per core specimen obtained with 14- or 16-gauge needles were similar, but both were significantly greater than the mean number obtained with 18-gauge needles. Needle gauge had a similar association with the likelihood of obtaining < 10 glomeruli in a core specimen. Specimens obtained via laparotomy or laparoscopic approaches more commonly contained medullary tissue than those obtained by ultrasound-guided approaches.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, findings suggested that ultrasound-guided biopsy with a 16-gauge needle should maximize the diagnostic quality of renal biopsy specimens from dogs with suspected kidney disease, while avoiding potential adverse effects caused by larger needles.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 2.5-year-old 12-kg (26.4-lb) castrated male Miniature American Shepherd was referred because of a 3-week history of a localized crusted skin lesion on the digital pad of digit 3 of the right hind limb.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Skin lesions were noted on the digital pads of the right hind limb. Serum biochemical analyses indicated severe hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Ultrasonography of the terminal portion of the aorta and other major arterial vessels revealed substantial arteriosclerotic change.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Medical treatments included administration of atorvastatin calcium, a low-fat diet, and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce serum lipids concentration; clopidogrel to prevent thrombosis; pentoxifylline to improve microcirculatory blood flow; clomipramine hydrochloride and trazodone hydrochloride to help with the behavioral problems; and gabapentin to help with pain management and behavioral problems. Surgical management included amputation of the initial digit involved, then eventually the entire initial limb involved. The response to treatment was poor, and euthanasia was elected. Postmortem findings revealed severe, widespread, and chronic intimal atherosclerosis; mild, widespread, and degenerative changes in the cerebral cortex; and edema and vascular congestion in the meninges.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this was the first report of skin necrosis secondary to atherosclerosis in a dog. Although the incidence of atherosclerosis has been considered very low in dogs, it should be investigated in dogs with severe hyperlipidemia. Primary hyperlipidemia has not been previously described in Miniature American Shepherd dogs but was the suspected underlying metabolic disorder.
A 16-year-old 7.8-kg (17.16-lb) sexually intact female serval (Leptailurus serval) housed at the Baton Rouge Zoo was evaluated at the zoo's veterinary hospital because of recurrent hematuria, pollakiuria, and intermittent anorexia of several weeks' duration.
Clinical, Clinicopathologic, and Gross Findings
Over a 6-month period, the hematuria became refractory to treatment. Urinalysis performed on a free-catch urine sample revealed a urine specific gravity of 1.014, 1+ proteinuria, 3+ blood, 25 to 50 RBCs/low power field (10X), and 1 to 3 WBCs/low power field (10X). Examination of a cytospin preparation of urine sediment revealed 1 to 3 epithelial cells/hpf
Objective—To document clinicopathologic, histologic, and toxicologic findings in cats inadvertently exposed to pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid.
Animals—70 cats from a single cattery inadvertently fed contaminated food that was the subject of a March 2007 recall.
Procedures—Clinical signs, clinicopathologic and histopathologic findings, and results of toxicologic analyses were recorded
Results—Clinical signs were identified in 43 cats and included inappetence, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, and lethargy. Azotemia was documented in 38 of the 68 cats for which serum biochemical analyses were performed 7 to 11 days after consumption of the contaminated food. One cat died, and 13 were euthanized. Histologic examination of kidney specimens from 13 cats revealed intratubular crystalluria, tubular necrosis with regeneration, and subcapsular perivascular inflammation characterized by perivascular fibroplasia or fibrosis and inflammation with intravascular fibrin thrombi. Toxicologic analyses revealed melamine and cyanuric acid in samples of cat food, vomitus, urine, and kidneys.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats unintentionally fed pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid, the most consistent clinical and pathologic abnormalities were associated with the urinary tract, specifically tubular necrosis and crystalluria.