A 13-year-old 6.5-kg (14.3-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of a peracute onset of tetraplegia. Within hours of being observed walking normally, the cat was found unable to stand. The cat had no prior medical problems. The cat was kept indoors, and its vaccination status was current.
Clinical and Gross Findings
Physical examination revealed no abnormalities with the exception of a grade 3/6 systolic heart murmur. There was no evidence of chronic kidney disease or hyperthyroidism. On neurologic examination, the cat was mentally normal but tetraplegic; overall examination findings were consistent with a lesion affecting the
A 12-year-old 4.5-kg (9.9-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of seizures. Five months earlier, the cat had had 2 generalized seizures 3 days apart. After the second seizure, the primary veterinarian had initiated treatment with phenobarbital, which resulted in cessation of seizure episodes. The cat was also receiving benazepril because of proteinuria, which had been previously diagnosed. The cat (tested when a kitten) was negative for circulating FeLV antigen and positive for anti-FIV antibody. Three days prior to evaluation, the cat began having complex, focal seizures that included hypersalivation, twitching of the facial muscles, decreased
A 15-week-old 14.1-kg (31-lb) male yellow Labrador Retriever was referred to the Neurology and Neurosurgery service at The Ohio State University because of dullness, lethargy, and a right-sided head tilt that progressively worsened over a period of several weeks.
Clinical and Gross Findings
Results of the clinical neurologic examination were consistent with a central vestibular lesion. Abnormalities included dull mentation, intermittent opisthotonic posture and lateral recumbency, absent menace response in both eyes, decreased oculocephalic reflex in both eyes, bilateral decreased nasal sensation, and spontaneous vertical nystagmus in both eyes. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a large, well-demarcated,
To determine whether dogs have a meningovertebral ligament (MVL) and to assess the effect that structure may have on pathological lesions within the ventral epidural space.
Cadaveric specimens from 6 neurologically normal dogs and 2 dogs with vertebral neoplasms that extended into the epidural space and MRI sequences and cytologic preparations from 2 dogs with compressive hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion that underwent decompressive surgery.
The vertebral column was removed for gross and histologic examination from the cadavers of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with vertebral neoplasms. For dogs with hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion, MRI sequences to assess lesion location and topography and cytologic preparations of material surgically extirpated from the ventral epidural space were reviewed.
All dogs had an MVL, which formed the ventral boundary of the epidural space and consisted of fibrous bands that attached the external ventral surface of the dura mater of the spinal cord to the dorsal surface of the vertebral bodies throughout the length of the vertebral canal. Both vertebral neoplasms had a bilobed appearance as did the extruded nucleus pulposus lesions on MRI sequences.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results of the present study indicated that dogs have an MVL, which creates an anatomic barrier within the ventral epidural space and causes pathological lesions to adopt a bilobed shape regardless of the pathogenic process. Further anatomic studies of the MVL and vertebral canal of dogs are necessary to elucidate how those structures affect lesion progression within the ventral epidural space.
A 7-year-old 34.1-kg (75-lb) castrated male pit bull–type dog was evaluated because of sudden-onset, rapidly progressive tetraparesis. Approximately 48 hours earlier, the owner noticed that the dog had left thoracic limb lameness. There was no change in the lameness until approximately 12 hours prior to evaluation when the dog suddenly became unable to stand or walk. The dog had been previously healthy. There was no coughing, sneezing, diarrhea, or increase in volume or frequency of urination. The dog had apparently normal appetite and thirst. The owner did not report any trauma. One year earlier, the dog had undergone surgical treatment
An 8-year-old 4.3-kg (9.4-lb) spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of progressive behavioral changes of several months’ duration. The owner stated that the cat had been pacing in circles, clockwise and counterclockwise, and acting more aloof. Treatment initiated by a veterinary behaviorist initially consisted of administration of fluoxetine, which was then changed to administration of paroxetine. Despite treatment, the clinical signs became progressively worse. The cat had no prior medical history, and its vaccination status was current. The cat was kept indoors and was the only cat in the household. Given the progression of signs, the cat