Ovariohysterectomy (OVH) is frequently recommended at the time of c-section in canines, yet prior literature suggests poor mothering ability and increased morbidity to the bitch with c-section with concurrent OVH (CSOVH). The study objective was to compare maternal survival, complications, and mothering ability between bitches that underwent c-section alone (CS) or CSOVH.
Medical records from 2014 through 2021 were retrospectively reviewed; owners were surveyed for information up to weaning.
80 bitches undergoing CS and 45 bitches undergoing CSOVH were identified. There was no difference in anesthesia duration, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, mothering ability, puppy survival to weaning, or other variables compared between groups. CSOVH bitches had longer surgery times (P = .045; 54.4 ± 20.7 min vs 46.9 ± 16.6 min) and longer time from delivery to nursing (P = .028; 75.4 ± 22.3 min vs 65.2 ± 19.5 min). Ninety (72%) owners responded to the survey. All 90 bitches survived until puppy weaning. CSOVH bitches were more frequently perceived as painful postoperatively (P = .015).
Performing an OVH at the time of c-section does not pose a significant increase in risk of mortality, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, or decreased mothering ability of the bitch. The increased duration of surgery and increased time from delivery to nursing in the CSOVH group were clinically insignificant. Appropriate postoperative pain management should be emphasized post-CSOVH. Based on these results, OVH should be performed concurrently with c-section if indicated.
To evaluate the effect of a constant rate infusion of ketamine on cardiac index (CI) in sheep, as estimated using noninvasive cardiac output (NICO) monitoring by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing, when anesthetized with sevoflurane at the previously determined minimum alveolar concentration that blunts adrenergic responses (MACBAR).
12 healthy Dorset-crossbred adult sheep.
Sheep were anesthetized 2 times in a balanced placebo-controlled crossover design. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane delivered via a tight-fitting face mask and maintained at MACBAR. Following induction, sheep received either ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV, followed by a constant rate infusion of 1.5 mg/kg/h) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (placebo). After an 8-day washout period, each sheep received the alternate treatment. NICO measurements were performed in triplicate 20 minutes after treatment administration and were converted to CI. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of NICO measurements for analysis of ketamine plasma concentrations. The paired t test was used to compare CI values between groups and the ketamine plasma concentrations with those achieved during the previous study.
Mean ± SD CI of the ketamine and placebo treatments were 2.69 ± 0.65 and 2.57 ± 0.53 L/min/m2, respectively. No significant difference was found between the 2 treatments. Mean ketamine plasma concentration achieved prior to the NICO measurement was 1.37 ± 0.58 µg/mL, with no significant difference observed between the current and prior study.
Ketamine, at the dose administered, did not significantly increase the CI in sheep when determined by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing.
OBJECTIVE To determine the minimum infusion rate (MIR) of propofol required to prevent movement in response to a noxious stimulus in dogs anesthetized with propofol alone or propofol in combination with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine.
ANIMALS 6 male Beagles.
PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized on 3 occasions, at weekly intervals, with propofol alone (loading dose, 6 mg/kg; initial CRI, 0.45 mg/kg/min), propofol (loading dose, 5 mg/kg; initial CRI, 0.35 mg/kg/min) and a low dose of ketamine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 0.025 mg/kg/min), or propofol (loading dose, 4 mg/kg; initial CRI, 0.3 mg/kg/min) and a high dose of ketamine (loading dose, 3 mg/kg; CRI, 0.05 mg/kg/min). After 60 minutes, the propofol MIR required to prevent movement in response to a noxious electrical stimulus was determined in duplicate.
RESULTS Least squares mean ± SEM propofol MIRs required to prevent movement in response to the noxious stimulus were 0.76 ± 0.1 mg/kg/min, 0.60 ± 0.1 mg/kg/min, and 0.41 ± 0.1 mg/kg/min when dogs were anesthetized with propofol alone, propofol and low-dose ketamine, and propofol and high-dose ketamine, respectively. There were significant decreases in the propofol MIR required to prevent movement in response to the noxious stimulus when dogs were anesthetized with propofol and low-dose ketamine (27 ± 10%) or with propofol and high-dose ketamine (30 ± 10%).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Ketamine, at the doses studied, significantly decreased the propofol MIR required to prevent movement in response to a noxious stimulus in dogs.
To compare the effect of a circulating warm water blanket (WWB) in combination with a heated humidified breathing circuit (HHBC) heated to 45 °C on rectal temperature (RT) in dogs undergoing general anesthesia for elective ovariohysterectomies.
29 healthy dogs.
Dogs in the experimental group (n = 8) and dogs in the control group (21) were connected to an HHBC and a conventional rebreathing circuit, respectively. All dogs were placed on a WWB in the operating room (OR). The RT was recorded at baseline, premedication, induction, transfer to OR, every 15 minutes during maintenance of anesthesia, and extubation. Incidence of hypothermia (RT < 37 °C) at extubation was recorded. Data were analyzed using unpaired t tests, the Fisher exact test, and mixed-effect ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined as P < .05.
There was no difference in RT during baseline, premedication, induction, and transfer to OR. The overall RT was higher for the HHBC group during anesthesia (P = .005) and at extubation (37.7 ± 0.6 °C) compared with the control group (36.6 ± 1.0 °C; P = .006). The incidence of hypothermia at extubation was 12.5% for the HHBC group and 66.7% for the control group (P = .014).
The combination of HHBC and WWB can reduce the incidence of postanesthetic hypothermia in dogs. Use of an HHBC should be considered in veterinary patients.
To evaluate the effects of rocuronium and sugammadex on the patient state index (PSI) in dogs anesthetized with propofol.
6 intact healthy male Beagles.
Anesthesia was induced with and maintained on a propofol infusion. The estimated plasma propofol concentration (ePC) was recorded. Baseline PSI and train-of-four ratio (TOFR) readings were collected for 2 minutes in stable general anesthesia. Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) was induced with 0.6 mg/kg, IV, rocuronium, and full NMB was confirmed with a TOFR of 0. After 5 minutes, the neuromuscular function was restored with 4 mg/kg sugammadex, IV (reversal), and monitored for 5 minutes. Throughout the data collection, ePC, PSI, and TOFR were recorded every 15 seconds and compared with mixed-effect ANOVA.
Baseline ePC, PSI, and TOFR were 3.63 ± 0.38, 41 ± 6, and 0.97 ± 0.08 µg/mL, respectively. There was no difference between the baseline of ePC and PSI from NMB or reversal. Compared to the baseline, the TOFR decreased to 0 with NMB (P < .001) and returned to 0.96 ± 0.08 (P = .721) on reversal. After 5 minutes, sugammadex fully reversed 5 out of 6 dogs to TOFR > 0.90 and partially reversed 1 animal to TOFR = 0.80.
There was no evidence that NMB with rocuronium and sugammadex-induced reversal interfered with PSI readings under steady-state total intravenous anesthesia with propofol. Further evaluation of PSI is warranted to assess its utility in a clinical population to detect changes in levels of consciousness during NMB.
Widespread use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine drives the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria in human, animal, and environmental reservoirs. The AVMA and FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine have both taken public positions emphasizing the importance of incorporating antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary clinical settings; however, a model for implementing a comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship program in veterinary practice is not readily available.
In 2015, The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine began developing a veterinary antimicrobial stewardship program modeled on existing programs in human health-care institutions and the 7 core elements of a successful hospital antimicrobial stewardship program, as defined by the CDC. The program includes comprehensive antimicrobial use guidelines, active environmental surveillance, and enhanced infection control procedures in The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center, along with routine monitoring and reporting of antimicrobial prescribing practices and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common pathogens isolated from patients and the hospital environment. Finally, programs have been developed to educate clinicians, staff, and students on antimicrobial resistance and appropriate antimicrobial prescribing practices.
The antimicrobial stewardship program has been designed to help clinicians and students confidently make judicious antimicrobial use decisions and provide them with actionable steps that can help them act as strong stewards while providing the best care for their patients. This report describes our program and the process involved in developing it, with the intent that the program could serve as a potential model for other veterinary medical institutions.