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  • Author or Editor: R. W. Soutas-Little x
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Summary

Motion of 6 clinically sound horses trotting at a speed of 4 m/s on a treadmill was captured by video cameras before and 9, 16, and 23 days after amphotericin-induced lameness to determine the quantitative variables of three-dimensional computer-assisted image analysis that objectively describe carpal lameness. Amphotericin-B was used to induce lameness, and phenylbutazone (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, once) and butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg im, q 6 h, to effect) were used to control discomfort. Four 60Hz cameras were symmetrically placed around the treadmill to capture 6 seconds of images from retro-reflective spheres taped to the trotting horses. Images were transferred to a video-based digitizer and a computer work station, where 4 files of two-dimensional data were reduced to 1 file of three-dimensional data. The effect of lameness on motion analyzed was assessed by use of two-way ANOVA. Differences between means were assessed, using the Student-Newman-Keul’s test (P ≤ 0.05).

Head and withers excursions, (dorsal vertical displacement of head and withers targets, respectively) during the sound forelimb support phase were increased significantly during all lameness measurement periods. Head excursion, but not withers excursion, during the lame forelimb support phase, was decreased significantly during all lameness measurement periods. Computer determinations of stride length swing phase, stance phase, forelimb abduction, and carpal and fetlock ranges of motion did not consistently characterize the lameness. It was concluded that three-dimensional computer-assisted image analysis could be used for objective lameness evaluation in horses and that head and withers excursions were the most consistent variables for assessing equine carpal lameness.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Force plate gait analysis was used to study the effects of subject velocity on ground reaction forces. Seven adult Greyhounds were trotted at 3 distinct velocities: 1.5 to 1.8 m/s, 2.1 to 2.4 m/s, and 2.7 to 3.0 m/s. Forelimb and hind limb peak vertical forces increased with increase in velocity (P < 0.05). Forelimb and hind limb vertical impulses decreased as velocity increased (P < 0.05). Significant variations were not observed for craniocaudal or mediolateral peak forces or impulses. It was concluded that velocity significantly (P < 0.05) influenced ground reaction forces and impulses, and must be controlled in experimental design.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Coefficients of variation were calculated for peak vertical force and for vertical, cranial, and caudal impulses recorded from the left forelimb and left hind limb of 5 dogs that were trotted across a force plate 5 times by 5 handlers. To determine the percentages of variance attributable to dogs, handlers, and trial repetitions, data recorded for each force measurement were analyzed according to a two-factor anova. Coefficients of variation for peak vertical forces and for vertical impulses varied between 5.8 and 8.5%. Coefficients of variation for the forelimb cranial and caudal impulses and for the hind limb cranial and caudal impulses were 26.4 and 30.5%, and 63.0 and 25.9%, respectively. The percentage of the total variance attributable to dogs and to trial repetitions ranged from 14 to 69% and from 29 to 85%, respectively, depending on the force or impulse evaluated. The percentage of variance attributable to handlers varied between 0 and 7%. The trivial amount of variation attributable to handlers indicated that multiple handlers may be used in experiments without an appreciable influence on the results.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research