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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To develop an economic model for comparing cost-effectiveness of medical and surgical treatment versus replacement of beef bulls with preputial prolapse.

Design

Economic analysis.

Sample Population

Estimates determined from medical records of bulls treated for preputial prolapse at our hospital and from information about treatment of bulls published elsewhere.

Procedure

Annual depreciation cost for treatment (ADCT) and replacement (ADCR) were calculated. Total investment for an injured bull equaled the sum of salvage value, maintenance cost, and expected cost of the treatment option under consideration. Total investment for a replacement bull was purchase price. Net present value of cost was calculated for each year of bull use. Sensitivity analyses were constructed to determine the value that would warrant treatment of an injured bull.

Results

The decision to treat was indicated when ADCT was less than ADCR. In our example, it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. The ADCR was $97 less than ADCT for medical treatment ($365 vs $462) and $280 less than ADCT for surgical treatment ($365 vs $645). Likewise, net present value of cost values indicated that it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. Sensitivity analysis indicated treatment decisions were justified on the basis of replacement value or planned number of breeding seasons remaining for the bull.

Clinical Implications

The model described here can be used by practitioners to provide an objective basis to guide decision making of owners who seek advice on whether to treat or replace bulls with preputial prolapse. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:856–859)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess signalment, history, results of clinical and laboratory testing, and outcome for beef cattle with a left displaced abomasum (LDA), right displaced abomasum (RDA), or abomasal volvulus (AV).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—19 beef cattle with an AV, LDA, or RDA.

Procedure—Signalment; history; results of physical examination, diagnostic testing, and surgical exploration; and condition of the animal at discharge were obtained from medical records.

Results—Fourteen cattle had an AV, 4 had an RDA, and 1 had an LDA. Duration of clinical signs ranged from 1 to 21 days. Eighteen cattle had an AV or RDA; 7 were Brahmans, 12 were males, and median age was 10 months. Abdominal distention was observed in 11 cattle, heart rate of ≥ 100 beats/minute was detected in 14, and the abomasum was palpable per rectum in all cattle in which per rectal examination was performed. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hyperglycemia, azotemia, hypochloremia, and hypokalemia were common laboratory findings. At surgery, 3 cattle with an AV or RDA had a ruptured abomasum. Of the remaining 15 cattle, 12 survived.

Conclusions—Clinical course in beef cattle with an AV or RDA was more protracted than that typically associated with these conditions in dairy cattle, but survival rate in beef cattle that did not have rupture of the abomasum was sim ilar to that of dairy cattle.

Clinical Relevance—Abomasal displacement should be considered for beef cattle with abdominal distention. Prognostic indicators recommended for use in dairy cattle may not be useful for beef cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:730–733)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the use of auricular vein catheters (AVC) in cattle in a clinical setting.

Design

Case series.

Animals

57 cattle.

Procedure

68 AVC were placed in cattle for the administration of drugs or rehydration fluids. Catheter size, quantity of fluids administered, duration of administration, drugs administered, duration of catheter maintenance, and problems were recorded.

Results

The AVC ranged in size from 20 to 14 gauge, with the latter being the predominate size. A maximum flow rate of 7.7 L/h was achieved, and the flow rate was satisfactory in all but 1 case. The maximum duration of maintenance was > 96 hours. Problems occurred in 29 of 68 (43%) catheterizations; the most frequent problem was occlusion of the catheter, which occurred 16 times (24%). No serious complications occurred.

Clinical Implications

Auricular vein catheters were a convenient, safe, and low-cost alternative to jugular vein catheters. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:905–907)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Postoperative performance and behavioral patterns were investigated retrospectively in 23 client-owned mares after bilateral ovariectomy via colpotomy. The interval from surgery to postoperative inquiries ranged from 9 to 67 months. Information obtained from review of the medical record and client interviews included the reason for ovariectomy, postoperative complications, problems identified by owners after discharge of the mare from the hospital, postoperative level of athletic performance, postoperative signs of estrus, and overall owner satisfaction. Reasons given by owners for having mares ovariectomized were behavioral modification (16 mares), use as embryo-transfer recipients (3 mares), use as mount mares for collecting semen (2 mares), elimination of chronic colic during estrus (1 mare), and sterilization for registration (1 mare). Postoperative complications developed in 4% (1/23) of the mares; however, problems were noticed by the owners of 4 other mares after discharge from the hospital. Continuing signs of behavioral estrus were detected in 35% (8/23) of the mares, but in only in 9% (2/23) was the behavior judged to be objectionable by the owner. Of 12 mares used in performance events prior to bilateral ovariectomy, 10 were judged to be competing at greater than preoperative levels, 1 was judged to be competing at the same level, and 1 was judged to be competing at less than preoperative level of performance. Of 18 owners, 14 were satisfied, 2 were undecided, and 2 were dissatisfied with their mare after it had had bilateral ovariectomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of erythromycin on motility of the ileum, cecum, and pelvic flexure of horses during the postoperative and post-recovery periods.

Animals—8 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Horses were anesthetized and bipolar electrodes were implanted in smooth muscle of the ileum, cecum, and pelvic flexure. Approximately 4, 16, and 24 hours (postoperative recording sessions) and at least 8 days (post-recovery recording session) after surgery, myoelectric activity was recorded before and after administration of erythromycin (0.5 mg/kg).

Results—Following erythromycin administration, myoelectric activity was increased in the ileum during all postoperative recording sessions but not during the post-recovery recording session. Myoelectric activity was increased in the cecum following erythromycin administration only during the post-recovery recording session. Myoelectric activity was increased in the pelvic flexure following erythromycin administration during all recording sessions. During several recording sessions, there were short periods during which myoelectric activity was significantly decreased following erythromycin administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that erythromycin has an effect on myoelectric activity of the ileum, cecum, and pelvic flexure in horses; however, prokinetic effects of erythromycin administered during the postoperative period were not always the same as effects obtained when the drug was administered after horses had recovered from the effects of surgical implantation of recording devices. Therefore, caution must be exercised when extrapolating results of prokinetic studies in healthy animals to animals with abnormal gastrointestinal tract motility. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:420–424)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of IV administration of penicillin G potassium (KPEN) or potassium chloride (KCl) on defecation and myoelectric activity of the cecum and pelvic flexure of horses.

Animals—5 healthy horses.

Procedure—Horses with 12 bipolar electrodes on the cecum and pelvic flexure received KPEN or KCl solution by IV bolus 4 hours apart. Each horse received the following: 2 × 107 U of KPEN (high-dose KPEN) followed by 34 mEq of KCl (high-dose KCl), 1 × 107 U of KPEN (low-dose KPEN) followed by 17 mEq of KCl (low-dose KCl), high-dose KCl followed by high-dose KPEN, and low-dose KCl followed by low-dose KPEN. Number of defecations and myoelectric activity were recorded for 60 minutes. The first three 5-minute segments and first four 15-minute segments of myoelectric activity were analyzed.

Results—Number of defecations during the first 15- minute segment was greater after high-dose KPEN treatment than after high-dose or low-dose KCl treatment. Compared with reference indexes, myoelectric activity was greater in the pelvic flexure for the first 5- minute segment after high-dose KCl treatment, in the cecum and pelvic flexure for the first 5-minute segment and in the pelvic flexure for the first 15-minute segment after low-dose KPEN treatment, and in the pelvic flexure for the first and second 5-minute segments and the first three 15-minute segments after high-dose KPEN treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of KPEN stimulates defecation and myoelectric activity of the cecum and pelvic flexure in horses. Effects of KPEN may be beneficial during episodes of ileus. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1360–1363)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine results of ultrasound-guided cystocentesis and percutaneous infusion of Walpole's solution for treatment of male goats with urolithiasis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—25 male goats with urolithiasis treated with Walpole's solution.

Procedures—Information obtained from the medical records included signalment, degree of urethral obstruction (partial vs complete), pertinent examination findings, concurrent illnesses, diet, other treatments administered, duration of hospitalization, whether the obstruction resolved, and outcome (ie, discharged vs euthanized).

Results—14 (58%) animals had complete urethral obstruction, and 10 (42%) had partial obstruction (degree of urethral patency was not recorded in 1 animal). Walpole's solution was infused once in 18 (72%) animals, twice in 6 (24%) animals, and 3 times in 1 (4%) animal. The amount of Walpole's solution required to achieve the target urine pH of 4 to 5 ranged from 50 to 250 mL. In 20 (80%) goats, the urethral obstruction resolved, and the goat was discharged. The remaining 5 (20%) goats were euthanized because of unresolved urethral obstruction. Six of the 20 (30%) goats that were discharged were reexamined because of recurrence of urethral obstruction.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ultrasound-guided cystocentesis in combination with percutaneous infusion of Walpole's solution may be a useful treatment in male goats with obstructive urolithiasis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association