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  • Author or Editor: R. L. Hegstad x
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The bioequivalency of 2 gondatropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) preparations, gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate and gonadorelin semicarbonate, was compared on the basis of luteinizing hormone (lh)-releasing ability of the 2 products in diestrous dairy cows. Twenty-four cycling, nonlactating Holstein cows were subjected to a double prostaglandin estrus synchronization treatment to simultaneously control stage of the estrous cycle and time factors as potential variables effecting lh responses to the treatments being studied. Circulating progesterone concentration was determined to verify stage of cycle at strategic times throughout the study. Twelve days after the second prostaglandin treatment, all cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (n = 12). Each group of 12 cows received single doses (100 μg) of either GnRH preparation at the start of each test period in a 2-period crossover design. Serum samples were obtained prior to and at 12 times (10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480, and 1,440 minutes) after treatment and were assayed to determine circulating lh concentration. Significant difference between the 2 GnRH products was not found with respect to: mean concentration of lh in the blood during the 24 hours after treatment; maximal lh concentration; time from treatment to maximal lh concentration; and area under the lh concentration curve from time 0 through each of 7 times after treatment (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours). These data confirm the bioequivalency of the 2 GnRH products.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate benign familial hyperphosphatasemia involving serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) in pups.


Pups with markedly increased SAP activity were evaluated and compared with unaffected siblings, and with other unaffected Siberian Husky pups from the same colony.


8 related litters of Siberian Husky pups (n = 56).


At ages 11 and 16 weeks, pups were given physical examinations and blood was obtained for hematologic and serum biochemical analyses (including electrolytes and isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase), ionized calcium concentration, and serum parathyroid hormone concentration. Diet, growth and health performance, skeletal radiographs, and genealogical data also were evaluated.


Of 42 pups tested, 17 had markedly high total SAP values. Mean total SAP activity of affected pups at ages 11 and 16 weeks was over 5 times greater than mean total SAP activity of unaffected siblings and other unaffected Siberian Husky pups of the same age (P <0.001). Clinical, radiologic, and biochemical evaluation of the subjects revealed no other abnormal findings. The source of the increased SAP activity was characterized in 5 affected pups as bone isoenzyme. The mode of inheritance could not be deduced from the data, but the trait clearly is familial and autosomal.


The condition described in the family of Siberian Huskies bears similarity to human benign, persistent, familial hyperphosphatasemia.

Clinical Relevance

Benign familial hyperphosphatasemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of markedly increased SAP activity in young dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:612–617)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effects of hypothyroidism on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and concentrations of hormones counter-regulatory to insulin in dogs.

Animals—8 anestrous mixed-breed bitches with experimentally induced hypothyroidism and 8 euthyroid control dogs.

Procedures—The insulin-modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test and minimal model analysis were used to determine basal plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, acute insulin response to glucose, insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and disposition index. Growth hormone response was assessed by stimulation and suppression tests. Additionally, basal serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations and urine cortisol-to-creatinine concentration ratios were measured and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed to evaluate body composition.

Results—Insulin sensitivity was lower in the hypothyroid group than in the euthyroid group, whereas acute insulin response to glucose was higher. Glucose effectiveness and disposition index were not different between groups. Basal serum GH and IGF-1 concentrations as well as abdominal fat content were high in hypothyroid dogs, but urine cortisol-to-creatinine concentration ratios were unchanged.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypothyroidism appeared to negatively affect glucose homeostasis by inducing insulin resistance, but overall glucose tolerance was maintained by increased insulin secretion in hypothyroid dogs. Possible factors affecting insulin sensitivity are high serum GH and IGF-1 concentrations and an increase in abdominal fat. In dogs with diseases involving impaired insulin secretion such as diabetes mellitus, concurrent hypothyroidism can have important clinical implications.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Eighteen dogs undergoing lateral thoracotomy at the left fifth intercostal space were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 postoperative analgesic treatment groups of 6 dogs each as follows: group A, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg of body weight, im; group B, 0.5% bupivacaine, 1.5 mg/kg given interpleurally; and group C, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg given interpleurally. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gas tensions, alveolar-arterial oxygen differences, rectal temperature, pain score, and pulmonary mechanics were recorded hourly for the first 8 hours after surgery, and at postoperative hours 12, 24, and 48. These values were compared with preoperative (control) values for each dog. Serum morphine and cortisol concentrations were measured at 10, 20, and 30 minutes, hours 1 to 8, and 12 hours after treatment administration.

All dogs had significant decreases in pHa, PaO2 , and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and significant increases in PaCO2 and alveolar-arterial oxygen differences in the postoperative period, but these changes were less severe in group-B dogs. Decreases of 50% in lung compliance, and increases of 100 to 200% in work of breathing and of 185 to 383% in pulmonary resistance were observed in all dogs after surgery. Increases in work of breathing were lower, and returned to preoperative values earlier in group-B dogs. The inspiratory time-to-total respiratory time ratio was significantly higher in group-B dogs during post-operative hours 5 to 8, suggesting improved analgesia. Blood pressure was significantly lower in group-A dogs for the first postoperative hour. Significant decreases in rectal temperature were observed in all dogs after surgery, and hypothermia was prolonged in dogs of groups A and C. Significant differences in pain score were not observed between treatment groups. Cortisol concentration was high in all dogs after anesthesia and surgery, and was significantly increased in group-B dogs at hours 4 and 8. Significant differences in serum morphine concentration between groups A and C were only observed 10 minutes after treatment administration. In general, significant differences in physiologic variables between groups A and C were not observed.

Results of the study indicate that anesthesia and thoracotomy are associated with significant alterations in pulmonary function and lung mechanics. Interpleurally administered bupivacaine appears to be associated with fewer blood gas alterations and earlier return to normal of certain pulmonary function values. Interpleural administration of morphine does not appear to provide any advantages, in terms of analgesia or pulmonary function, compared with its im administration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research