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Abstract

A 2-phase study was performed to characterize the effects of Streptococcus equi infection in unexposed and previously exposed foals. In phase I, 22 weanling foals involved in a naturally occurring S equi epizootic were studied, along with a comparison group of 11 unexposed foals, matched for age, sex, and breed. Six months later (phase II), an epizootic was experimentally induced in previously exposed and unexposed foals from phase I. The prevalence and duration of clinical signs, the relative risk of developing disease, bacteriologic culture results, hematologic responses, and mucosal and serum immunologic responses were determined. Disease protection in phase-I and -II foals was associated with high values for serum S equi M protein-specific IgG at the onset of the epizootic (P < 0.02 for phase 1 and P < 0.01 for phase II), and with a rapid (within 2 weeks of exposure) mucosal S equi M protein-specific IgG response (P < 0.05 for phase I and P = 0.01 for phase II).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 2.5-month-old female alpaca that had been born prematurely was examined because of moderate mucopurulent nasal discharge and high rectal temperature.

Clinical Findings—In addition to pyrexia and clinical signs of disease of the upper portion of the respiratory tract, the cria had inappetence and was in an unthrifty condition. Hematologic abnormalities included low WBC count, low hemoglobin concentration, and low PCV. Samples of blood were submitted for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and serologic evaluation. Other adults and newborn crias in the herd were similarly examined. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was detected in the cria, and a diagnosis of persistent infection with BVDV was made at 5.5 months of age. Persistent BVDV infection was suspected in another cria born into the herd but was not identified in any of the adult alpacas.

Treatment and Outcome—Despite several treatments with antimicrobials, no permanent improvement of the cria's condition was achieved. Because of the poor prognosis, the owners requested euthanasia of the cria; BVDV was isolated from specimens of multiple organs collected at necropsy.

Clinical Relevance—To date, BVDV infection in New World camelids has not been regarded as a major disease entity. Findings in the cria of this report illustrate that some strains of BVDV readily infect alpacas. Clinical description of the disease plus clinicopathologic findings suggest that persistent BVDV infection may be greatly overlooked as a cause of chronic anemia and failure to thrive in alpacas.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the association of 6 clinical features with outcome of dogs with generalized megaesophagus.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—71 client-owned dogs with radiographic evidence of generalized esophageal dilation.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for data on signalment, age at onset of clinical signs, body weight, evidence of undernutrition, and the administration of drugs to treat or prevent esophagitis. Radiographs were reviewed for evidence of aspiration pneumonia (AP) and to calculate the relative esophageal diameter. Details of outcome were collected from the medical records and by contacting owners and referring veterinarians. The association of 6 factors with death before discharge and overall survival time was assessed.

Results—Overall median survival time was 90 days. Nineteen (26.7%) patients died before discharge from the hospital. Radiographic evidence of AP was both positively associated with death before discharge and negatively associated with overall survival time. An age at onset of clinical signs of >13 months was negatively associated with overall survival time. No evidence of an association of the degree of esophageal dilation or the use of drugs to prevent or treat esophagitis with death before discharge or overall survival time was found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Radiographic evidence of AP and the age at onset of clinical signs were the only variables found to be significantly associated with survival time in this study, and this should be considered when advising on prognosis in dogs with megaesophagus.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess clinical outcomes and scintigraphic findings in horses with a bone fragility disorder (BFD) treated with zoledronate (a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate).

Design—Prospective uncontrolled clinical trial.

Animals—10 horses with evidence of a BFD.

Procedures—Signalment, history, and geographic location of horses' home environments were recorded. Physical examinations, lameness evaluations, and nuclear scintigraphy were performed. Diagnosis of a BFD was made on the basis of results of clinical and scintigraphic examination. Each horse was treated with zoledronate (0.075 mg/kg [0.034 mg/lb, IV, once]) at the time of diagnosis. Horses were reevaluated 6 months after treatment.

Results—Affected horses were from the central and coastal regions of California and had ≥ 1 clinical sign of the disorder; these included scapular deformation (n = 2), lordosis (1), nonspecific signs of musculoskeletal pain (1), and lameness that could not be localized to a specific anatomic region (9). All horses had multiple sites of increased radiopharmaceutica uptake during initial scintigraphic evaluation of the axial skeleton and bones of 1 or both forelimbs. Six months after treatment, clinical improvement (defined as improvement in the lameness score, resolution of signs of musculoskeletal pain, or both) was detected in 9 of 10 horses; scintigraphic uptake was unchanged (n = 2) or subjectively decreased (8). No adverse effects attributed to zoledronate treatment were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with zoledronate appeared to be useful in improving clinical outcome and scintigraphic findings in horses with a BFD; however, future placebo-controlled studies are necessary to accurately determine efficacy and long-term safety.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association