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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine the ability of preemptive administration of a proprietary neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist to attenuate limb dysfunction associated with monosodium urate–induced synovitis in the stifle joints of dogs.

Animals—16 clinically normal adult mixed-breed dogs (8 males and 8 females).

Procedures—A crossover study was conducted in 2 phases. Dogs were assigned to 2 groups (8 dogs/group) and orally administered an NK1 receptor antagonist (3 mg/kg) or a control substance once daily for 4 days. Synovitis was then induced in the left stifle joint by intra-articular injection of monosodium urate. Investigators were not aware of treatment group assignments. Dogs were evaluated by use of subjective lameness scores during standing, walking, and trotting and by use of ground reaction force data 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours after urate injection. After a 21-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each dog administered the other treatment and injected with monosodium urate in the contralateral stifle joint.

Results—No significant differences were detected between the NK1 receptor antagonist and control treatments with regard to peak vertical force, vertical impulse area, or subjective evaluations of lameness during standing, walking, or trotting, except during walking 24 hours after monosodium urate injection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preemptive administration of an NK1 receptor antagonist failed to significantly improve subjective or objective outcome measures in dogs with monosodium urate–induced synovitis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effect of 3 plasma concentrations of alfentanil on the minimum alveolar concentration (mac) of halothane in horses was evaluated. Five healthy geldings were anesthetized on 3 occasions, using halothane in oxygen administered through a mask. After induction of anesthesia, horses were instrumented for measurement of blood pressure, airway pressure, and end-tidal halothane concentrations. Blood samples, for measurement of pH and blood gas tensions, were taken from the facial artery. Positive pressure ventilation was begun, maintaining PaCO 2, at 49.1 ± 3.3 mm of Hg and airway pressure at 20 ± 2 cm of H2O. The mac was determined in triplicate, using a supramaximal electrical stimulus of the oral mucous membranes. Alfentanil infusion was then begun, using a computer-driven infusion pump to achieve and maintain 1 of 3 plasma concentrations of alfentanil. Starting at 30 minutes after the beginning of the infusion, mac was redetermined in duplicate. Mean ± sd measured plasma alfentanil concentration during the infusions were 94.8 ± 29.0, 170.7 ± 29.2 and 390.9 ± 107.4 ng/ml. Significant changes in mac were not observed for any concentration of alfentanil. Blood pressure was increased by infusion of alfentanil and was dose-related, but heart rate did not change. Pharmacokinetic variables of alfentanil were determined after its infusion and were not significantly different among the 3 doses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To assess the efficacy of etodolac in improving hind limb function in dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joint.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

100 client-owned dogs with clinical signs of osteoarthritis of the hip joint.

Procedure

Baseline ground reaction forces and subjective assessment scores were collected twice at a 7- to 10-day interval. After meeting entrance criteria, dogs were randomly assigned to the following 3 treatment groups: control group (0 mg of etodolac), low-dosage group (135 mg of etodolac), or high-dosage group (450 mg of etodolac). Dogs were treated once daily for 8 days, and gait analysis was repeated on day 8.

Results

On day 8 of treatment, vertical impulse and vertical peak force values for low- and high-dosage groups were significantly greater than baseline values within each group. On day 8, vertical impulse values from the high-dosage group were significantly greater than values from the low-dosage group. Vertical peak forces for the low- and high-dosage groups were significantly greater at 8 days than that of the control group. Analysis of the effect of evaluation center (site) on treatment outcome did not reveal a significant effect.

Clinical Implications

Etodolac administration for 8 days improved ground reaction forces in dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Improvement in force transmission was dosage dependent for the primary outcome measurement (vertical impulse). Results of the study indicate that etodolac is well tolerated by dogs, with minimal adverse effects during an 8-day treatment period. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:206–210)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Over an 8-year period, 8 beef cattle with mesothelioma were admitted to the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine and the Louisiana State School of Veterinary Medicine. Diagnosis was confirmed by histologic examination of affected tissues. Five bulls, 1 steer, and 2 cows were affected. Four of the bulls had scrotal swelling; 2 cows and 1 bull had ventral abdominal swelling. The peritoneal cavity was involved in 5 cases, the pleural cavity was affected in 2 cases, and in 2 cases, disease was apparently confined to the vaginal cavity. Of the 8 cattle, 6 died or were euthanatized; only cattle with tumor apparently confined to the vaginal cavity survived.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association