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  • Author or Editor: R. C. Purohit x
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Summary

Equine amnion and live yeast cell derivative were evaluated as a biological dressing and as a topical wound medicament respectively, in the treatment of granulating wounds of the distal portion of the limbs of horses. Wounds measuring 2.5 × 2.5 cm were created on the dorsomedial aspect of the metacarpal and metatarsal region of all 4 limbs of 9 horses. Each wound was assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatment groups: group C, treated with a nonadherent bandage as a control; group A, treated with amnion beneath a nonadherent bandage; and group L, treated with live yeast cell derivative beneath a nonadherent bandage. Rates of contraction and epithelialization were not significantly different among groups. Percentage of epithelialization for group A was significantly greater throughout the study than for the other groups. Number of days to complete healing was significantly less in group A and significantly greater in group L than in group C. Incidence and severity of exuberant granulation tissue were significantly less in group A than in the other 2 groups. Group L had more frequent and severe cases of exuberant granulation tissue than the other 2 groups.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Mean conduction velocity of sensory axons of the dorsal penile nerves of clinically normal bulls was determined by recording action potentials evoked by cutaneous stimulation. Locations of stimulating and recording electrodes were standardized. Overall mean ± sd conduction velocity was 55.1 ± 5.1 m/s. Mean ± sd velocity recorded from the distal electrode was 53.3 ± 4.9 m/s; velocity recorded from the middle electrode was 55.3 ± 5.0 m/s; and velocity recorded from the proximal electrode was 56.7 ± 5.1 m/s. Differences among means were not significant Four bulls had mean conduction velocities of 54.0 m/s and 48.4 m/s before and 3 weeks after castration, respectively.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To use lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to create synovitis in the midcarpal joint of ponies, and to assess the morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical effects of synovitis on articular cartilage of the third carpal bone.

Animals

2- to 3-year-old ponies, 6 control (group 1) and 6 treated (group 2).

Procedure

Synovitis was induced in 1 midcarpal joint of group-2 ponies by intra-articular injections of LPS (0.02 μg/kg of body weight), morphine (0.1 mg/kg), and saline solution (group 2a) and morphine and saline solution alone in the contralateral midcarpal joint (group 2b). Articular cartilage sections and attached synovial membrane from the third carpal bones were examined by immunohistochemical distribution of interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF receptors (P55, P75) and 3-B-3(–) epitopes, and by localization of proteoglycans (metachromatic staining). Proteoglycan extracts were assessed by metachromatic staining or western blotting and immunohistochemical staining, using anti-3-B-3 antibodies.

Results

Enhanced immunoreactivity for the cytokines and receptors was found in inflamed synovial membrane and noncalcified cartilage (group 2a more than 2b). Metachromasia of the noncalcified cartilage was greater in group-1 than in group-2a and group-2b specimens. In group 2a, chondrocyte hypertrophy and enhanced immunoreactivity for 3-B-3(–) epitope in areas of increased cytokine immunoreactivity suggested possible phenotypic change of the chondrocytes in response to synovitis. Immunohistochemical analysis by western blotting of proteoglycan extracts indicated strong 3-B-3(–) epitope immunolocalization in group-2a, weaker staining in group-2b, and barely detectable stain in group-1 specimens, which correlated with in situ immunolocalization.

Conclusions

Intra-articular administration of LPS may be used to induce a synovial environment conducive to increased immunoreactivity of interleukin 1β, TNF-α, and its receptors in equine synovial membrane and articular cartilage. These cytokines may be involved in the early phenotypic change of chondrocytes that is believed to occur in osteoarthritis and is characterized in this study by enhanced 3-B-3(–) epitope immunoreactivity and chondrocyte hypertrophy. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1080–1093)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research