Case Description—A 444-g (0.98-lb) 4-year-old sexually intact female Solomon Island eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus solomonensis) was referred and evaluated for a suspected colonic obstruction.
Clinical Findings—The parrot had a 3-day history of not passing feces and lack of appetite following treatment of dystocia that included percutaneous collapse of the egg and manual removal of egg fragments via the cloaca. During this procedure, a tear in the cloacal mucosa developed. The tear was repaired via a midline cloacotomy. Although clinically stable at the time of referral, the parrot became lethargic and bradycardic and had delayed crop emptying.
Treatment and Outcome—A midline celiotomy and cloacotomy were performed to relieve the colonic obstruction, during which the severely distended colon ruptured. The colonic defects were closed in a simple interrupted pattern, and a serosal patch was applied by use of the adjacent duodenum. The bird recovered uneventfully from anesthesia and was passing voluminous feces with mildly increased effort within 1 hour after surgery. At 3 weeks after surgery, the parrot was passing feces with no increase in effort and had a normal appetite.
Clinical Relevance—Application of a duodenal serosal patch for repair of a colon rupture was successful in this parrot. Gastrointestinal obstruction is rare in birds, but should be considered in birds that have regurgitation, decreased fecal production, and gastrointestinal dilation. Because birds lack an omentum, serosal patching with adjacent duodenum should be considered as a viable option in avian surgery.
Case Description—A 7-year-old spayed female Miniature Rex European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was evaluated because of scratching at the right ear. Physical examination revealed purulent exudate in the right ear canal.
Clinical Findings—Microbial culture of the exudate yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to marbofloxacin; however, the infection was refractory to appropriate medical treatment. Computed tomography revealed isoattenuating material within the right tympanic bulla and external ear canal with no enhancement following IV administration of contrast medium. The left tympanic bulla appeared normal.
Treatment and Outcome—A total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy were performed on the right ear, and polymethylmethacrylate beads containing either gentamicin or cefazolin were placed within the bulla and surrounding tissues. Two weeks after surgery, the patient appeared comfortable with no signs of scratching at the right ear.
Clinical Relevance—Total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy can be successfully performed for treatment of chronic otitis externa and media in rabbits. Cartilage plates that compose the external ear canal, a bony acoustic duct, lack of a horizontal ear canal, and thickness of the lateral aspect of the tympanic bulla are features unique to rabbits and have not been described in relation to these surgical procedures in rabbits. Rabbits also produce a caseous exudate, and it is difficult to resolve infections of bone and soft tissues. Placement of antimicrobial-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads is recommended to minimize the risk of recurrent infection.
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of application of an alcohol-based antiseptic (80% ethyl alcohol) hand rub (ABAHR) with that of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate scrub (CGS2) for immediate reduction of the bacterial population on the skin of dogs.
ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs with no evidence of skin disease.
PROCEDURES On each dog, 2 areas of hair on the ventral aspect of the abdomen were clipped with a No. 40 blade and cleared of debris. A direct contact plate holding tryptic soy agar with polysorbate 80 and lecithin was gently pressed (for 2 seconds) on each skin site (preapplication sample). The CGS2 and ABAHR were each aseptically applied to 1 skin site on each dog. A direct contact plate was subsequently applied to each site in a similar manner (postapplication sample). All plates were cultured, and bacterial isolates were identified and quantified by the number of CFUs per plate.
RESULTS Application of the CGS2 and ABAHR significantly decreased skin bacterial colony counts, compared with findings for preapplication samples. The number of CFUs per plate or postapplication percentage reduction in CFUs per plate did not differ between treatments. There were no adverse skin reactions associated with either application.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that applications of ABAHR and CGS2 were equally effective at immediately reducing the bacterial population on the skin of dogs, and there was no significant difference in percentage reduction in colony counts between the 2 applications.
Objective—To compare surgical site infection and inflammation rates between the use of nonimpregnated (polydioxanone and poliglecaprone 25) versus triclosan-impregnated (polydioxanone and poliglecaprone 25) suture for incisional closure in dogs undergoing a standardized orthopedic procedure (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy [TPLO]).
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—283 dogs that underwent TPLO between November 2005 and December 2009.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for age; body weight; body condition score; use of propofol; perioperative and postoperative administration of antimicrobials; presence of a preoperative infection; use of a jig; technique of joint exploration; type of suture material (triclosan impregnated vs nonimpregnated) used to close the pes anserinus, subcutaneous layer, and subcuticular layer; use of staples or suture to close the skin; and surgery and anesthesia durations. The outcome variables were surgical site inflammation and infection.
Results—Rates of infection and inflammation did not differ between surgeries for which triclosan-impregnated suture was used (n = 159 [8.8%, and 18.8%, respectively]) and those for which nonimpregnated suture was used (112 [10.7% and 15.2%, respectively]). The use of staples, compared with suture, to close the skin significantly decreased the inflammation rate.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with in vitro conditions, in vivo conditions (where the environment is not controlled and triclosan may elute more quickly from the suture) may decrease the antibacterial effectiveness of triclosan-impregnated suture. On the basis of our findings, triclosan-impregnated sutures did not seem to provide an additional benefit for clinical use and cannot be strongly recommended for elective orthopedic procedures in veterinary medicine.
Objective—To establish reference values for electrodiagnostic
evaluation of peripheral nerve function in birds.
Animals—6 rheas and 6 barred owls.
Procedure—Birds were anesthetized with propofol or
isoflurane in oxygen. Using a computer-based electromyograph
system and needle electrodes for stimulation
and recording, electromyography (EMG) was
performed on the pectoral, biceps brachialis, and gastrocnemius
muscles, and evoked EMG was performed
on the tibial and ulnar nerves. Motor nerve conduction
velocity (MNCV) was calculated. Repetitive stimulation
was performed on these 2 nerves. Late F waves were
recorded for each nerve, when possible.
Results—Activity was evident during insertion of the
electrodes, but muscles tested were electrically quiescent
after spontaneous EMG. Motor nerve conduction
velocity was faster in the tibial nerve than ulnar
nerve but did not differ significantly between species.
Mean ± SEM MNCV was 132.3 ±± 7.8 m/s for the tibial
nerve and 59.7 ± 7.8 m/s for the ulnar nerve. A significant
difference was not observed in responses at
the fourth or ninth stimulation during repetitive stimulation.
Subsequent to the initial stimulation, amplitudes
were ± 22.7% of the initial motor potential
amplitude. Recorded F waves were inconsistent,
which may have been associated with technique.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reference
range (mean ± 2 SEM) for MNCV was 34.1 to
75.3 m/s for the ulnar nerve and 116.7 to 147.9 m/s
for the tibial nerve in barred owls and rheas. After
repetitive stimulation, motor potential amplitudes
may be ± 22.7% of the initial amplitude response.
(Am J Vet Res 2000;61:469–472)
Objective—To evaluate histologic reactions to 8 suture materials and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (CTA) in the musculature and skin of ball pythons.
Animals—30 hatchling ball pythons.
Procedures—In each snake, ten 1-cm skin incisions were made (day 0). At 8 sites, a suture of 1 of 8 materials was placed in the epaxial musculature, and the incision was closed with the same material. One incision was closed by use of CTA. No suture material was placed in the tenth incision, which was allowed to heal by second intention (negative control). Snakes (n = 5/group) were euthanized for harvest of treatment-site tissues at days 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. Skin and muscle sections were examined microscopically and assigned a subjective score (0 to 4) for each of the following: overall severity of inflammation, fibrosis, number of macrophages, number of granulocytes, number of perivascular lymphocytes, and degree of suture fragmentation.
Results—Subjective score analysis revealed that CTA did not cause a significant inflammatory response, compared with the negative control. All suture materials caused significantly more inflammation over all time points; for all suture materials, inflammatory response scores were significantly higher than values for the negative control 90 days after implantation. No sutures were completely absorbed by the end of the study period, and several sutures appeared to be in the process of extrusion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In snakes, CTA can be used to close small superficial incisions or lacerations with minimal inflammatory response, and sutures may undergo extrusion from tissues prior to complete absorption.
Objective—To measure plasma concentration of ionized
calcium in healthy green iguanas.
Animals—9 juvenile and 21 (10 male, 11 female) adult
Procedure—Blood samples were obtained from each
iguana, and plasma calcium, glucose, phosphorus, uric
acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, potassium, and
ionized calcium concentrations, aspartate transaminase
(AST) activity, and pH were measured. Heparinized
blood was used for measurement of ionized calcium
concentration and blood pH. A CBC was also performed
to assess the health of the iguanas.
Results—Significant differences were not detected
among the 3 groups (juveniles, males, and females)
with regard to ionized calcium concentration. Mean
ionized calcium concentration measured in blood was
1.47 ± 0.105 mmol/L. Significant differences were
detected between juveniles and adults for values of
phosphorus, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin,
and AST activity.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ionized calcium
concentration provides a clinical measurement of
the physiologically active calcium in circulation.
Evaluation of physiologically active calcium in animals
with suspected calcium imbalance that have total
plasma calcium concentrations within reference
range or in gravid animals with considerably increased
total plasma calcium concentrations is vital for determining
a therapeutic plan. Accurate evaluation of calcium
status will provide assistance in the diagnosis of
renal disease and seizures and allow for better evaluation
of the health status of gravid female iguanas. (J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:326–328)
Objective—To determine the protein and cellular
composition of CSF in healthy adult ferrets.
Animals—42 clinically normal adult ferrets.
Procedure—CSF samples were collected from the
cerebellomedullary cistern of anesthetized ferrets by
use of disposable 25-gauge, 1.6-cm-long hypodermic
needles. Samples were processed within 20 minutes
after collection. The number of WBCs and RBCs per
microliter of CSF was counted by use of a hemacytometer.
The total protein concentration was determined
by use of an automated chemistry analyzer.
Results—Total WBC counts (range, 0 to 8 cells/µL;
mean, 1.59 cells/µL) in CSF of ferrets were similar to reference
range values obtained for CSF from other
species. Twenty-seven CSF samples had < 100 RBCs/µL
(mean, 20.3 RBCs/µL). A small but significant effect of
blood contamination on WBC counts was found
between the 27 CSF samples with < 100 RBCs/µL and
the remaining samples. Protein concentrations in CSF of
ferrets (range, 28.0 to 68.0 mg/dL; mean, 31.4 mg/dL)
were higher than has been reported for the CSF of dogs
and cats. A significant effect of blood contamination on
the CSF protein concentration was not found.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—
established reference range values for WBC counts
and protein concentrations in CSF from healthy adult
ferrets that may be useful in the clinical investigation
of CNS disease. Results of our study indicate that the
WBC count is significantly affected by blood contamination
of the CSF sample. (Am J Vet Res