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Summary:

An epidemiologic study investigating the prevalence of lameness in lactating dairy cows was performed in 17 dairy herds in Minnesota and Wisconsin. The mean herd size was 50 cows. Cows from 14 herds were housed in stanchions or tie stalls, and cows from 3 herds in free stalls or dry lot. During visits to each farm in the summer and subsequent spring, 2 investigators simultaneously but independently evaluated the ambulation of lactating cows by use of a standardized scoring system. The lameness scoring system was reliable at the 2 visits, with 92.7 and 91.3% agreement between the 2 observers and κ coefficients of 0.60.

The prevalence of lameness detected by the investigators (“clinical” lameness) was 13.7% (117/853) in summer and 16.7% (134/801) in spring in lactating dairy cows. These prevalences were 2.5 times higher than those estimated by the herd managers. Parity was significantly (P ≤ 0.03) associated with lameness, with higher prevalence of clinical lameness found in cows of higher parity.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Effects of 1 hour of colonic volvulus and 3 hours of reperfusion on concentrations of thromboxane (txb 2) and prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF) in portal, pulmonary arterial, and jugular blood were determined by radioimmunoassay to assess the site of production and clearance of these eicosanoids from the circulation in 5 anesthetized ponies. Colonic volvulus had no significant effect on mean arterial pressure or txb 2 concentrations, but significantly (P < 0.05) increased 6-keto-PGF concentrations in all blood samples. Immediately after colonic reperfusion, all eicosanoid concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Then, txb 2 returned to baseline values, whereas 6-keto-PGF concentrations remained significantly (P < 0.05) high for the remainder of the study. Eicosanoid concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in portal blood than in pulmonary arterial and jugular blood samples at all periods. This suggests that the splanchnic circulation is the primary site of eicosanoid production during and after colonic volvulus and the liver appears to provide most of the circulatory clearance of thromboxane and prostacyclin.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Two indirect elisa containing outer membrane protein (omp) and lipopolysaccharide (lps) antigens from a field isolate of Salmonella choleraesuis var kunzendorf developed and evaluated in experimentally infected and uninfected control pigs. Experimentally induced infection with S choleraesuis was successfully established in 10 pigs by oral inoculation with 108 organisms, and 3 pigs died of clinical salmonellosis at postinoculation (pi) weeks 1, 2, and 4. Swab specimens from tonsils, nostrils, and rectum of pigs were obtained for culture, and sera were evaluated at weekly intervals for 9 weeks after inoculation. The elisa containing omp and lps antigens with either anti-swine IgG or protein albumin-to-globulin ratio (antiglobulin) conjugates were standardized for serologic evaluation. All 4 elisa (2 omp and 2 lps) detected seroconversion by pi week 3 and had sensitivities and specificities of 97.8 and 88.8, 100 and 100, 95.6 and 88.8, and 93.3 and 72.5%, at their ideal cutoff points (negative mean optical density + 2 sd). There was excellent agreement between all 4 elisa systems as determined by kappa values. Cultures of fecal, tonsil, and nasal swab specimens were positive for S choleraesuis until the fourth week of infection. Fecal swab specimens from 1 pig were positive for S choleraesuis until pl week 7. Persistent infection after antemortem culture results were negative was detected by all 4 elisa, which indicated consistently high titers until the end of pi week 9. Conventional bacteriologic examination of intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung, liver, spleen, and bile yielded positive results for S choleraesuis in the 3 pigs that died of clinical infection, whereas results were negative in the other 7 pigs infected by the end of pl week 9. Histologic examination of lung, liver, spleen, intestines, and mesenteric lymph nodes from the 3 pigs that died of S choleraesuis infection revealed severe ulceration and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa of the intestine, whereas minimal changes were observed in other organs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Results of an elisa, indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test, and immunoblot analysis (western blotting) for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in a sample of 216 lactating dairy cows were compared. The microscopic microtitration agglutination test for antibody to 6 serovars of Leptospira interrogans was also performed to evaluate possible cross-reactivity between B burgdorferi and L interrogans. Using western blotting as the standard test against which the elisa and ifa test were compared, the elisa had greater sensitivity (50% in summer and 38% in spring) with similar specificity (83 and 82%), compared with the ifa test (sensitivity, 6 and 5%; specificity, 90 and 83%). In addition, seropositivity to B burgdorferi, using the elisa, was not found to be associated with seropositivity to L interrogans serovars.

A matched case-control study evaluating the association between clinical lameness and antibody to B burgdorferi was performed in lactating dairy cows of 17 Minnesota and Wisconsin herds. Sera from case and control cows matched by herd, parity, and stage of lactation were evaluated, using an elisa for B burgdorferi antibody during 2 seasons. High B burgdorferi antibody values were associated with clinical lameness in dairy cows (P = 0.006 in summer and P = 0.04 in spring).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—An 18-year-old mare was evaluated for an oral mass that developed after extraction of a broken incisor.

Clinical Findings—An ulcerated, firm, darkly pigmented, approximately 5-cm-diameter spherical mass involved the gingiva lateral and dorsal to the right first to third maxillary incisors. Osteolysis of the roots of the first and second right maxillary incisors and periosteal proliferation of the adjacent premaxilla margins were apparent on radiographs. Histologic examination of the mass revealed multiple coalescing and ramifying foci of abscess formation, each containing a well-defined, discrete, black mass (2 to 7 mm in diameter). Myriad fungal hyphae enmeshed in a black, granular, cementlike material were within each of the black structures. Mycetoma was the histologic diagnosis. The causative agent could not be identified via culture because of lack of distinguishing characteristics. Fungal DNA was isolated from frozen fungal cultures and paraffin sections. The D1/D2 domains of the large subunit P gene rDNA were amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of both isolates were 96% homologous with those of Phialophora oxyspora.

Treatment and Outcome—The mass was surgically excised, the local area curetted, and the wound allowed to heal by second intention. Postoperative treatment consisted of administration of phenylbutazone and IV administration of sodium iodide followed by oral administration of potassium iodide. There was no evidence of recurrence 1 year later.

Clinical Relevance—Mycetomata should be a differential diagnosis for equine gingival masses. Identification of the fungal agent can be critical for selection of optimal treatments. Molecular methods may permit definitive identification when standard phenotypic-based identification criteria are inconclusive.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

A retrospective study was conducted to establish the prerace venous acid-base and blood gas values of Standardbred horses at rest using big data analytics.

SAMPLES

Venous blood samples (73,382) were collected during seven racing seasons from 3 regional tracks in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Horses were detained 2 hours prior to race time.

PROCEDURES

A mixed-effects linear regression model was used for estimating the marginal model adjusted mean (marginal mean) for all major outcomes. The interaction between age and gender, track, and the interaction between month, treatment (furosemide), and year were the major confounders included in the model. Random effects were set on individual animal nested within trainer. Partial pressure of venous carbon dioxide (PVCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PVO2), and pH were measured, and base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), and bicarbonate (HCO3 ) were calculated.

RESULTS

Significant (P < .001) geographical differences in track locations were seen. Seasonal reductions in acid-base values started in January with significant (P < .001) decreases from adjacent months seen in June, July, and August followed by a gradual return. There were significant increases (P < .001) in BE and TCO2 and decreases in PVO2 with age. Significant differences (P < .001) in acid-base values were seen when comparing genders. A population of trainers were significantly different (P < .001) from the marginal mean and considered outliers.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In a population of horses, big data analytics was used to confirm the effects of geography, season, prerace furosemide, gender, age, and trainer influence on blood gases and the acid-base profile.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify differential microRNA (miRNA) expression in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma, splenic hematoma, and histologically normal spleens.

ANIMALS

Dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma (n = 10), splenic hematoma (n = 5), and histologically normal spleens (n = 5).

PROCEDURES

Splenic tissue and serum samples were collected from dogs with splenic masses (ie, hemangiosarcoma or hematoma samples) and healthy control dogs (ie, control samples), and total RNA was extracted. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR was performed with 28 miRNAs associated with hemangiosarcoma, angiosarcoma, or associated genes. Differential expression analysis was performed.

RESULTS

Control tissue and serum samples had similar miRNA expression patterns, and hemangiosarcoma tissue and serum samples did not. Hemangiosarcoma serum samples had higher expression than hemangiosarcoma tissue for 13 miRNAs and lower expression for 1 miRNA. Control tissue and hemangiosarcoma tissue had varying expressions for 12 miRNAs, with 10 more highly expressed in control samples and 2 more highly expressed in hemangiosarcoma samples. Five miRNAs (miR-214-3p, miR-452, miR-494-3p, miR-497-5p, miR-543) had significantly different expression in serum between dogs with splenic masses (ie, hemangiosarcoma or hematoma) and serum of dogs with histologically normal spleens, with higher expression in the serum of dogs with splenic masses for all 5 miRNAs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

5 circulating miRNAs were identified that distinguished dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma or hematoma from those with histologically normal spleens. These 5 miRNAs had higher expression in dogs with splenic masses, indicating upregulation of these circulating miRNAs occurs in these splenic disease states. These miRNAs may be useful as a noninvasive screening tool that uses serum to identify dogs with splenic masses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the safety and efficacy of thoracoscopically guided pulmonary wedge resection in horses.

Animals—10 horses (5 control horses and 5 horses affected with recurrent airway obstruction [ie, heaves]).

Procedure—Each horse underwent a thoracoscopically guided pulmonary wedge resection. Before, during, and after surgery, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood gases, and systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures were measured. Physical examination, CBC, and thoracic radiography and ultrasonography were performed 24 hours before and 2 and 48 hours after surgery. Pulmonary specimens were assessed by histologic examination. A second thoracoscopic procedure 14 days later was used to evaluate the resection site.

Results—The technique provided excellent specimens for histologic evaluation of the lung. Heart and respiratory rates decreased significantly after horses were administered sedatives. A significant transient decrease in PaO2 was detected immediately after pulmonary wedge resection, but we did not detect significant effects on arterial pH, Paco2, or mean arterial and pulmonary arterial pressures. All horses except 1 were clinically normal after thoracoscopic surgery; that horse developed hemothorax attributable to iatrogenic injury to the diaphragm. The second thoracoscopy revealed minimal inflammation, and there were no adhesions.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Thoracoscopically guided pulmonary wedge resection provides a minimally invasive method for use in obtaining specimens of lung tissues from healthy horses and those with lung disease. This technique may be useful for the diagnosis of diseases of the lungs and thoracic cavity. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1232–1240)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration in Standardbred racehorses by means of a novel ELISA following validation of the assay for use with equine plasma samples.

SAMPLE Plasma samples obtained from 25 Thoroughbreds for use in assay validation and from 319 Standardbred racehorses at rest 2 to 2.5 hours prior to warm-up and racing.

PROCEDURES A sandwich ELISA was developed with equine anti–IL-6 polyclonal antibody and the biotin-streptavidin chemical interaction to enhance sensitivity. The assay was validated for specificity, sensitivity, precision, and accuracy by use of both recombinant and endogenous proteins.

RESULTS For the assay, cross-reactivity with other human and equine cytokines was very low or absent. Serial dilution of plasma samples resulted in proportional decreases in reactivity, indicating high specificity of the method. Partial replacement of detection antibody with capture antibody or pretreatment of samples with capture antibody caused assay signals to significantly decrease by 55%. The inter- and intra-assay precisions were ≤ 13.6% and ≤ 9.3%, respectively; inter- and intra-assay accuracies were within ranges of ± 14.1% and ± 8.6%, respectively, at concentrations from 78 to 5,000 pg/mL, and the sensitivity was 18 pg/mL. Plasma IL-6 concentration varied widely among the 319 Standardbreds at rest (range, 0 to 193,630 pg/mL; mean, 6,153 pg/mL; median, 376 pg/mL).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This ELISA method proved suitable for quantification of IL-6 concentration in equine plasma samples. Plasma IL-6 concentration was high (> 10,000 pg/mL) in 9.1% of the Standardbred racehorses, which warrants further investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research