Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: R Scott Pleasant x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of 3 equimolar concentrations of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), triamcinolone acetonide (TA), and isoflupredone acetate (IPA) on equine articular tissue cocultures in an inflammatory environment.

SAMPLE Synovial and osteochondral explants from the femoropatellar joints of 6 equine cadavers (age, 2 to 11 years) without evidence of musculoskeletal disease.

PROCEDURES From each cadaver, synovial and osteochondral explants were harvested from 1 femoropatellar joint to create cocultures. Cocultures were incubated for 96 hours with (positive control) or without (negative control) interleukin (IL)-1β (10 ng/mL) or with IL-1β and MPA, TA, or IPA at a concentration of 10−4, 10−7, or 10−10M. Culture medium samples were collected from each coculture after 48 and 96 hours of incubation. Concentrations of prostaglandin E2, matrix metalloproteinase-13, lactate dehydrogenase, and glycosaminoglycan were determined and compared among treatments at each time.

RESULTS In general, low concentrations (10−7 and 10−10M) of MPA, TA, and IPA mitigated the inflammatory and catabolic (as determined by prostaglandin E2 and matrix metalloproteinase-13 quantification, respectively) effects of IL-1β in cocultures to a greater extent than the high (10−4M) concentration. Mean culture medium lactate dehydrogenase concentration for the 10−4M IPA treatment was significantly greater than that for the positive control at both times, which was suggestive of cytotoxicosis. Mean culture medium glycosaminoglycan concentration did not differ significantly.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the in vitro effects of IPA and MPA were similar to those of TA at clinically relevant concentrations (10−7 and 10−10M).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the vascular distribution pattern of contrast medium during intraosseous regional perfusion (IORP) of the distal portion of the equine forelimb.

Sample Population—13 cadaveric forelimbs from 12 horses without forelimb diseases.

Procedures—Serial lateromedial radiographic views were taken of the distal portion of 10 heparinized cadaveric forelimbs at 0, 1, 2, 6, 15, and 30 minutes during IORP of the third metacarpal bone (MCIII) by use of iodinated contrast medium and a tourniquet placed over the proximal portion of MCIII. Vascular regions of interest (ROI) were created for each radiograph. Reviewers identified the presence or absence of contrast medium–induced opacified vessels in all ROI on radiographs. This information was summarized to identify vessel-filling patterns over time. Vessel identification was verified by use of computed tomography angiography and latex perfusion studies on the distal portion of separate cadaveric forelimbs.

Results—During IORP, contrast medium filled the medullary cavity of the MCIII; exited via transcortical vessels; and diffused distally to the remaining arteries and veins of the forelimb, distal to the tourniquet. Maximum vessel and soft tissue opacification occurred in most specimens at 6 and 30 minutes, respectively. Serial radiography vessel patterns matched those of computed tomography images and dissected specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IORP provides a repeatable pattern of vascular distribution in the distal portion of the equine forelimb. To our knowledge, our study provides the first documentation of arterial perfusion by use of IORP; results of previous reports indicate that IORP delivers medications to only the venous vessels of the perfused forelimb.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Navicular bone intraosseous pressure, gross pathologic, histologic, and histochemical data were collected from 8 horses with navicular disease and 4 control horses. Simultaneous navicular bone intraosseous, medial palmar arterial, and saphenous venous pressures were measured for the left and right forelimbs of each horse under general anesthesia. Gross pathologic evaluation included grading of changes on the flexor surface of the navicular bone. Safranin-O-fast green-stained sections were used for histologic-histochemical grading of the hyaline articular and fibrocartilage surfaces of the navicular bones. Hematoxyhn and eosin-stained sections were used for morphologic evaluation of the marrow spaces of navicular bones. Mean navicular bone intraosseous pressure for horses with navicular disease was significantly (P< 0.001) higher than that for controls. Differences in medical palmar arterial or saphenous venous pressures were not significant between groups. The median flexor surface gross pathologic and histologic-histochemical fibrocartilage scores for horses with navicular disease were significantly (P< 0.001) more severe than those for control horses. The histologic-histochemical hyaline cartilage scores for control horses and those for horses with navicular disease were not significantly different. Fibrosis of the marrow spaces beneath the flexor cortex of horses with navicular disease was more pronounced than that of control horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The case records, radiographs, and nuclear bone scans of 58 horses with stress reactions or stress fractures of the proximal palmar aspect of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) were reviewed. There were 47 Standardbreds, 4 Quarter Horses, 3 Thoroughbreds, 2 Arabians, 1 Oldenburg, and 1 Pony of America. Fifty-six of the horses were racehorses or performance horses. The mean and median ages of affected horses were 4 and 3 years, respectively. Lameness ranged from mild to severe. Physical findings were usually subtle and included signs of pain on deep palpation of the proximal palmar aspect of MC3 and slight effusion of the middle carpal joint in some cases. Lameness was commonly improved by high palmar and palmar metacarpal nerve blocks or anesthesia of the middle carpal joint. Fifty-three horses had higher than normal radiopharmaceutical uptake in the proximal palmar aspect of MC3 in the left or right limb. The other 5 horses had higher than normal radiopharmaceutical uptake bilaterally. Fifty-six of the 63 limbs with abnormal bone scans also had abnormal radiographs. Treatment consisted of a variable period of rest (1 to 6 months). Healing was best assessed by follow-up bone scans. Of the 45 horses for which follow-up information was adequate, 29 (64%) returned to their previous level of performance.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To estimate sensitivity and accuracy of subjective evaluation of mild lameness in horses during treadmill locomotion and to correlate subjective evaluation with kinematic analysis.

Animals

19 lame and 5 clinically normal horses.

Procedure

Lameness was evaluated by subjective score and kinematic analysis before and after palmar digital nerve block (PDNB). Evaluations were made by 6 clinicians and 7 interns or residents. Within- and between-observer agreement analyses (κ values) were calculated and compared, using a Student’s t-test. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated between clinician’s change in score and the change in kinematic variables after PDNB.

Results

Within-observer agreement was within the range expected for conditions of moderate diagnostic difficulty. Within-observer agreement was higher for clinicians than for interns or residents. Between-observer agreement was acceptable for scores within 1 value of each other. Between-observer agreement of change in lameness score after PDNB was poor. When kinematic variables were ranked with each clinician’s subjective change in score, only 2 were among the top 3 for the majority of clinicians. Asymmetry of vertical head movement between contralateral forelimb stance phases and the point of maximum hoof height during swing decreased as lameness subjectively improved.

Conclusion

Mild lameness may be difficult to evaluate during treadmill locomotion. Although clinicians were more repeatable in their subjective evaluation of lameness than interns or residents, they were not more reliable at detecting the true state of lameness.

Clinical Relevance

Lack of agreement between clinician scoring of mild lameness emphasizes the need to use more objective measures for quantifying lameness. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1370–1377)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research