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Summary

Concentrations of amino acids in plasma and whole blood in response to 10 hours of food deprivation were determined in healthy 2-day-old foals (n = 8) and were compared with control values in foals of the same age (n = 8) allowed free access to suckle. In addition, response of concentrations of amino acids in plasma to 15 minutes of free-access suckling was determined at the end of the 10-hour period in both groups. Response of 13 amino acids in plasma of food-deprived foals was significantly (P < 0.05) different, compared with that in control foals. Concentrations of 3 amino acids (alanine, glycine, and phenylalanine) in plasma increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas concentrations of 7 amino acids (asparagine, citrulline, histidine, ornithine, proline, tryptophan, and tyrosine) in plasma decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during food deprivation. Response of concentrations of 2 amino acids (glycine and histidine) in whole blood was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that in plasma of food-deprived vs control foals. Refeeding of food-deprived foals resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) different responses for concentrations of all but 2 amino acids (cystine and taurine) in plasma, compared with responses in controls. Changes in concentrations of amino acids in plasma and whole blood of foals in response to food deprivation are similar to those in foals with septicemia and in children with grade 1 or 2 kwashiorkor. The significantly different response of food-deprived foals to refeeding may be attributable to increased protein intake or altered physiologic state.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Temporal changes, as well as differences in distribution, in concentrations of 24 amino acids in plasma and whole blood of neonatal foals were determined from birth to 2 days of age. In addition, differences in concentrations of amino acids in plasma between mare and foal pairs were determined at birth. Significant (P < 0.05) hypoaminoacidemia existed for 15 amino acids in plasma of foals at birth, compared with mares (paired t-test). Concentrations of 7 amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, hydroxyproline, phenylalanine, proline) in plasma of foals were higher (P < 0.05) at birth than in mares, and concentrations of 2 (taurine, tryptophan) were not different (P > 0.05). Significant (P < 0.05) temporal changes for concentrations of 19 of 24 amino acids in plasma were observed during the 48-hour period. Concentrations of 13 of the 19 amino acids in plasma that had significant changes were higher (P < 0.05) at 48 hours. Significant (P > 0.05) effect of time on concentration of 5 amino acids (alanine, methionine, phenylalanine, taurine, threonine) in plasma was not found after birth. Temporal changes in concentrations of 7 amino acids (alanine, asparagine, glutamine, histidine, hydroxyproline, methionine, and threonine) in whole blood were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from those in plasma. Temporal changes for concentrations of the remaining 17 amino acids in whole blood were significantly (P < 0.05) different, compared with plasma. Distribution of the concentrations of 18 amino acids between whole blood and plasma was significantly (P < 0.05) different. Concentrations of 5 amino acids (citrulline, cystine, glutamine, methionine, tryptophan) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in whole blood than in plasma, whereas concentrations of 13 amino acids were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in whole blood vs plasma. Concentrations of 6 amino acids (asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, proline, serine, valine) in whole blood were not significantly different from concentrations in plasma. Significant differences in temporal patterns of concentrations of amino adds in plasma and whole blood may be attributable to nutritional or physiologic changes associated with parturition. Significant differences between concentrations of amino acids in whole blood and plasma may be attributable to ontogeny or specificity of transport systems across cell membranes.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate complications and outcomes associated with use of gastrostomy tubes in dogs with renal failure.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—56 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for dogs with renal failure that were treated by use of gastrostomy tubes.

Results—Mean ± SD BUN concentration was 134 ± 79 mg/dl and mean serum creatinine concentration was 9.0 ± 3.8 mg/dl. Low-profile gastrostomy tubes were used for initial placement in 10 dogs, and traditional gastrostomy tubes were used in 46 dogs. Mild stoma-site complications included discharge, swelling, erythema, and signs of pain in 26 (46%) of dogs. Twenty-six gastrostomy tubes were replaced in 15 dogs; 11 were replaced because of patient removal, 6 were replaced because of tube wear, and 3 were replaced for other reasons. Six tubes were replaced by low-profile gastrostomy tubes. Gastrostomy tubes were used for 65 ± 91 days (range, 1 to 438 days). Eight dogs gained weight, 11 did not change weight, and 17 lost weight; information was not available for 20 dogs. Three dogs were euthanatized because they removed their gastrostomy tubes, 2 were euthanatized because of evidence of tube migration, and 1 died of peritonitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gastrostomy tubes appear to be safe and effective for improving nutritional status of dogs with renal failure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1337–1342)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether cats fed baby food with onion powder develop Heinz bodies and anemia and to establish a dose-response relation between dietary onion powder content and Heinz body formation.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

42 healthy, adult, specific-pathogen-free cats.

Procedure

Commercial baby food with and without onion powder was fed to 2 groups of 6 cats for 5 weeks. Heinz body percentage, PCV, reticulocyte percentage, turbidity index, and methemoglobin and reduced glutathione concentrations were determined twice weekly and then weekly for 4 weeks following removal of the diet. For the dose-response study, 5 groups of 6 cats were fed a canned diet for 2 months that contained 0, 0.3, 0.75, 1.5, or 2.5% onion powder. Heinz body percentage, PCV, and reticulocyte percentage were determined twice weekly.

Results

Compared with cats fed baby food without onion powder, cats ingesting baby food with onion powder had significantly higher Heinz body percentages that peaked at 33 to 53%. Methemoglobin concentration also significantly increased but did not exceed 1.2%. Glutathione concentration, PCV, and food intake did not differ between the 2 groups. Rate and degree of Heinz body formation differed significantly between various onion powder concentrations fed. Compared with 0% onion powder, the diet with 2.5% onion powder caused a significant decrease in PCV and an increased punctate reticulocyte percentage.

Clinical Implications

Baby food or other foods containing similar amounts of onion powder should be avoided for use in cats because of Heinz body formation and the potential for development of anemia, particularly with high food intake. Cats with diseases associated with oxidative stress may develop additive hemoglobin damage when fed baby food containing onion powder. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212: 1260–1266)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Heinz body formation was examined in kittens, in response to consumption of a variety of diets. A commercial salmon-based diet containing 16.5 mg of nitrite, 39 mg of histamine, and 210,000 IU of vitamin A/kg of diet (dry-matter basis) was found to induce Heinz body formation. Purified experimental diets—containing nitrite up to 405 mg/kg; histamine, 50 mg/kg; histamine, 50 mg/kg plus nitrite, 45 mg/kg; or vitamin A, 250,000 IU/kg—failed to induce Heinz body formation.

The effect of propylene glycol (pg) on Heinz body formation was examined by giving groups of 6 kittens purified diets containing 5 or 10% pg for 12 weeks. Two additional kittens were fed a commercial soft-moist diet containing pg for 12 weeks. All kittens fed pg developed Heinz bodies, with peak values for erythrocytes containing Heinz bodies being: 28% for kittens of the 10% pg group; 20% for kittens of the 5% pg group; and 36% for kittens of the soft-moist diet group. Kittens did not develop anemia or methemoglobinemia. Heinz body percentage required 6 to 8 weeks to decrease to the pretreatment value of < 1% after diets containing pg were discontinued.

51Chromium-labeled erythrocytes were used to evaluate erythrocyte survival in 4 kittens of the 10% pg-fed group and in 4 control kittens. Kittens with Heinz body formation induced by 10% pg had significantly (P < 0.001) decreased erythrocyte survival, compared with that for controls, with half-life of 8.3 days for kittens of the pg group, compared with 12.6 days for kittens of the control group.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine signalment, history, clinical signs, blood and plasma taurine concentrations, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, treatment, and outcome of dogs with low blood or plasma taurine concentrations and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—12 client-owned dogs with low blood or plasma taurine concentrations and DCM.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and clinical data were obtained.

Results—All 12 dogs were being fed a commercial dry diet containing lamb meal, rice, or both as primary ingredients. Cardiac function and plasma taurine concentration improved with treatment and taurine supplementation. Seven of the 12 dogs that were still alive at the time of the study were receiving no cardiac medications except taurine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that consumption of certain commercial diets may be associated with low blood or plasma taurine concentrations and DCM in dogs. Taurine supplementation may result in prolonged survival times in these dogs, which is not typical for dogs with DCM. Samples should be submitted for measurement of blood and plasma taurine concentrations in dogs with DCM, and taurine supplementation is recommended while results of these analyses are pending. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1137–1141)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of lipoic acid, vitamin E, and cysteine before and after oxidant challenge in cats.

Animals—24 sexually intact adult cats.

Procedure—Cats were allocated into 4 equal groups. For 25 weeks, group A was fed a control dry diet and groups B, C, and D received this diet supplemented with vitamin E (2,200 U/kg [dry matter basis {DMB}]) plus cysteine (9.5 g/kg [DMB]), lipoate (150 mg/kg [DMB]), or all 3 antioxidants together, respectively. Weights were measured every 3 days and venous blood obtained every 5 weeks for CBC; serum biochemical analyses; lymphocyte blastogenesis; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration; and concentrations of plasma protein carbonyl, 8-OH dguanosine, blood glutathione, plasma amino acid, lipoate, and dihydrolipoate. At 15 weeks, all cats received acetaminophen (9 mg/kg, PO, once), clinical effects were observed, and methemoglobin concentrations were measured.

Results—Lymphocyte blastogenesis increased transiently in group C and D cats. After acetaminophen administration, all groups had transient increases in methemoglobin within 4 hours and mild, brief facial edema; group C had decreased glutathione concentration and increased 8-OH d-guanosine concentration versus controls; and protein carbonyl concentration increased least for group B. Plasma lipoate and dihydrolipoate concentrations peaked by week 10 for groups C and D.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lipoate, vitamin E, and cysteine did not have synergistic effects. Lipoate supplementation (150 mg/kg [DMB]) did not act as an antioxidant but appeared to enhance oxidant effects of acetaminophen. Vitamin E plus cysteine had protective effects. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:196–204)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effectiveness of 3 antioxidants in preventing Heinz body anemia in cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—44 specific-pathogen-free healthy cats.

Procedure—Cats were housed individually, divided randomly into 4 groups, and given the following orally every 12 hours: empty gelcaps (control cats), Nacetylcysteine (NAC, 100 mg/kg of body weight), vitamin E (d,l-α-tocopherol; 400 IU), or ascorbate (250 mg). After 2 weeks, Heinz bodies were induced by dietary onion powder (OP; 1% or 3% of dry matter) or propylene glycol (PG, 8% wt/vol in drinking water) for an additional 3 weeks. Intake of treated water or food was recorded daily. Body weight, PCV, Heinz body and reticulocyte percentages, reduced glutathione concentration, and total antioxidant status were measured twice weekly in all cats.

Results—Heinz body percentage and degree of anemia did not differ significantly among cats receiving antioxidants and control cats except in cats that ingested water containing PG, in which antioxidant supplementation was associated with a decrease in water intake. Of cats that were fed a diet that contained OP, cats that received NAC had significantly higher reduced glutathione concentrations, compared with other cats in the experiment. Total antioxidant status did not consistently correlate with antioxidant supplementation or type of oxidant administered (ie, OP or PG).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although the effect of antioxidant supplementation on Heinz body anemia in cats was minimal, antioxidants may have subclinical biochemical effects such as GSH sparing that may be important against milder forms of oxidative stress. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:370–374)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether oral administration of L-lysine to cats would lessen the severity of conjunctivitis caused by feline herpesvirus (FHV-1).

Animals—8 healthy young adult cats.

Procedure—Cats received oral administration of lysine monohydrochloride (500 mg, q 12 h) or placebo (lactose) beginning 6 hours prior to inoculation of virus. The left conjunctival sac received a 50-µl suspension of FHV-1 grown in cell culture (1.8 X 108 tissue culture infective dose50) on day 1. Cats were evaluated and scores given for clinical signs each day for 21 days. Samples for virus isolation were collected from the eye and throat every third day. Plasma lysine and arginine concentrations were measured prior to the study and on days 3, 14, and 22.

Results—Cats that received lysine had less severe conjunctivitis than cats that received placebo. Virus isolation results did not differ between the groups. Plasma lysine concentration was significantly higher in cats that received lysine, compared with control cats, whereas plasma arginine concentrations did not differ between groups.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of 500 mg of lysine to cats was well tolerated and resulted in less severe manifestations of conjunctivitis caused by FHV-1, compared with cats that received placebo. Oral administration of lysine may be helpful in early treatment for FHV-1 infection by lessening the severity of disease. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:99–103)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To validate a recently developed commercially available leptin radioimmunoassay (RIA) for use with feline serum and evaluate the relationship between serum leptin concentrations and body fat mass in domestic cats.

Animals—19 sexually intact male specific–pathogenfree domestic cats that weighed 3.8 to 7.1 kg and were 1.1 to 3.5 years old.

Procedure—Specificity for feline leptin was evaluated by use of gel filtration chromatography and reversephase high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of serum. Body fat mass was determined by use of the deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution method. Serum water D2O enrichment was measured by use of gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

Results—Body fat mass and percentage body fat ranged from 0.3 to 2.3 kg and 7.5 to 34.9%, respectively. Serum leptin concentrations were lower in the unfed versus the fed state and ranged between 1.6 and 4.9 ng/ml human equivalent (HE); mean ± SD value was 2.9 ± 0.2 ng/ml HE. Leptin concentrations increased with increasing body fat mass and percentage of body fat.

Conclusions—Leptin is in the serum of domestic cats in free (> 78%) and apparently bound forms. The relationship between body fat and serum leptin concentration was similar to that observed in humans and rodents and indicative of a lipostatic role for leptin in cats. Cats that have an overabundance of body fat appear to be less sensitive to the weight-normalizing action of leptin than cats of ideal body condition. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:796–801)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research