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  • Author or Editor: Pierre-Yves Mulon x
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Abstract

Objective—To describe the use of a novel intramedullary interlocking nail for femoral fracture repair in newborn calves and outcome associated with this treatment modality.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—25 calves.

Procedures—Medical records from calves referred for femoral fracture repair between November 2008 and June 2009 were included. Signalment, clinical findings, and results of lameness examination and complete radiographic examination were recorded. Details of surgical technique, orthopedic fixation, associated complications, and outcome were also noted.

Results—25 Charolais calves were included in the study. All fractures were closed and located in the diaphysis; 18 extended to the distal metaphysis, 1 was located proximally, and 6 were midshaft fractures. Fractures were localized to the left femur in 17 calves and to the right femur in 8 calves. An interlocking nail was used as the sole means of internal fixation in 16 calves and was reinforced in 9 calves. Two calves were euthanatized for reasons related to the surgery, and 4 died of unrelated reasons. Long-term prognosis was considered excellent for 15 calves and fair for 4 calves. Age, body weight, overall musculoskeletal strength at initial evaluation, affected limb, configuration and location of the fracture, need for reinforcement of the repair, and quality of the reduction had no significant association with positive outcome of the surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The novel intramedullary interlocking nail used in the present study was associated with a good prognosis for surgical repair of femoral fractures in newborn calves regardless of the location of the fracture.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of 2 augmentation techniques on the mechanical properties of titanium cannulated bone screws.

SAMPLE

33 titanium cannulated bone screws (outer diameter, 6.5 mm; guide channel diameter, 3.6 mm).

PROCEDURES

11 screws were allocated to each of 3 groups. The guide channel of each screw was filled with polymethyl methacrylate bone cement alone (OCS group) or in combination with a 3.2-mm-diameter orthopedic pin (PCS group) or remained unmodified (control group) before mechanical testing. Each screw underwent a single-cycle 3-point bending test to failure with a monotonic loading rate of 2.5 mm/min. Failure was defined as an acute decrease in resistance to load of ≥ 20% or a bending deformation of 15 mm. Mechanical properties were determined for each screw and compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS

All screws in the control and OCS groups and 1 screw in the PCS group broke during testing; a 15-mm bending deformation was achieved for the remaining 10 screws in the PCS group. Maximum load and load at failure differed significantly among the 3 groups. Stiffness and load at yield for the PCS group were significantly greater than those for the control and OCS groups but did not differ between the control and OCS groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of bone cement and an orthopedic pin to fill the guide channel of cannulated screws significantly increased the strength of the construct, but ex vivo and in vivo studies are necessary before this augmentation technique can be recommended for clinical patients.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome associated with distal interphalangeal joint (DIJ) degenerative disease in calves.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—9 calves with degenerative disease of the DIJ.

Procedures—Medical records of calves with lameness for which the cause had been localized to the distal aspect of a limb but without evidence of trauma or sepsis were included. Signalment and results of physical, lameness, radiographic, and postmortem examinations were recorded. Outcomes of medical and surgical treatments were evaluated.

Results—All 9 calves had forelimb lameness (4 bilaterally). The medial digit was affected in 12 limbs and the lateral digit was affected in 9 limbs. Radiographic examination revealed bridging osteoproliferation along the abaxial and palmar aspects of affected DIJs (18/21), subchondral cyst-like lucencies (19/21), and sclerosis (16/21). The DIJ was resected in 3 calves (7 joints), resulting in resolution of lameness within 3 months. Medical management was attempted in 4 calves (6 joints), and 2 calves (6 joints) did not receive treatment; 5 calves had a normal stance within 5 months. Results of postmortem com-puted tomographic and histologic examination were in accordance with degenerative joint disease processes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Degenerative disease of the DIJ should be considered in calves with insidious, progressive forelimb lameness. Although the etiology of this process remains undetermined, results of radiographic, computed tomographic, and histologic examinations suggested an underlying developmental anomaly, such as osteochondrosis. Surgical treatment appeared promising on the basis of postop-erative resolution of lameness in all surgically treated calves.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG1) concentrations in maternal (jugular vein) and fetal (uterine vein) circulations and amniotic fluid samples between pregnant ewes that were and were not experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

ANIMALS

11 healthy pregnant yearling ewes.

PROCEDURES

Before study initiation, all ewes were naïve to BVDV and confirmed pregnant by transabdominal ultrasonography at approximately 60 days of gestation. At 65 days of gestation, ewes were intranasally inoculated with a noncytopathic BVDV type 1b strain (concentration, 107 TCID50/mL; 2 mL/nostril; n = 6) or an equal volume of BVDV-free viral culture medium (control; 5). A blood sample was collected for measurement of PAG1 concentration before inoculation. At 80 days of gestation, each ewe was anesthetized and underwent an ovariohysterectomy. While sheep were anesthetized, blood samples from the jugular and uterine veins and an amniotic fluid sample were collected for measurement of PAG1 concentration. Fetal tissues underwent real-time PCR analysis for BVDV RNA, and placental specimens underwent histologic evaluation and immunohistochemical staining for BVDV antigen.

RESULTS

At 80 days of gestation, BVDV RNA in fetal tissues and mild placentitis were detected in 5 of 6 BVDV-inoculated ewes. Mean PAG1 concentrations in the maternal and fetal circulations of BVDV-inoculated ewes were significantly less than those in control ewes. Mean amniotic fluid PAG1 concentration did not differ significantly between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Concentration of PAG1 in the maternal circulation may be a useful biomarker for determining placental health in sheep after viral infection of the reproductive tract.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe rates of surgical complications, survival, and return to breeding soundness following herniorrhaphy for bulls with inguinal hernias.

ANIMALS

13 sexually mature bulls with acquired inguinal hernias.

PROCEDURES

Medical record databases of 3 veterinary teaching hospitals were searched to identify records of bulls that underwent herniorrhaphy for correction of an inguinal hernia from 2005 to 2017. Information extracted from the medical records included breed, age, duration and side of the hernia, surgical procedure details, postoperative complications, and information regarding subsequent fertility.

RESULTS

All 13 bulls had a left inguinal hernia and were anesthetized and underwent herniorrhaphy via an inguinal approach. The left testicle was removed during the surgical procedure in 2 bulls. Nylon or polypropylene mesh secured with size-5 polyester suture was used to facilitate inguinal ring closure in 2 bulls. The inguinal ring was closed with size-5 or size-2 polyester suture in the remaining bulls. Postoperative complications included hernia recurrence (n = 4), excessive scrotal swelling (3), and transient radial nerve paralysis (1). Follow-up information was available for 7 bulls. All 7 bulls had impregnated cows or heifers following surgery, including 1 bull that had hernia recurrence and underwent unilateral castration during the second herniorrhaphy.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Inguinal herniorrhaphy with or without mesh was a safe and effective procedure for inguinal hernia repair in bulls and was associated with a good prognosis for subsequent fertility. However, sparing the ipsilateral testicle during the herniorrhaphy procedure might increase the risk for hernia recurrence.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association