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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To analyze the results of transoral ventral bulla osteotomy (TOVBO) in cats.

ANIMALS

13 client-owned cats treated by TOVBO between February 2016 and February 2019.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of cats with a diagnosis of middle ear disease (MED) that underwent TOVBO were reviewed. The procedure was similar to the one described for dogs. Short-term follow-up was obtained via clinical examination before discharge and at day 15 postoperatively. Long-term follow-up was performed via telephone interview.

RESULTS

13 cats (age range, 8 months to 12 years) underwent unilateral (n = 10) or bilateral (3) TOVBO (16) for the treatment of tympanic bulla (TB) infection (10), nasopharyngeal inflammatory polyps (5), or bullet retrieval from the TB (1). There were no intraoperative complications. One cat with a poor preoperative status died at postoperative day 3 from pneumonia. Eight cats experienced postoperative complications including head tilt (n = 2), Horner syndrome (3), loss of appetite (2), and temporary blindness (1). Collected samples confirmed the presence of nasopharyngeal inflammatory polyps (5), or otitis media (8). Six months after surgical intervention, 9 cats were free of MED signs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This oral approach provided a good access to the TB in all cases. The complications observed after TOVBO were similar to those for VBO. In cats, TOVBO seems to be an acceptable and safe minimally invasive alternative to the other approaches of the TB to address MED.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 2-year-old Griffon Vendéen was examined because of a 1-month history of right hind limb lameness after a traumatic injury.

Clinical Findings—Neurologic examination revealed monoplegia and anesthesia of the right hind limb distal to the stifle (femorotibial) joint except for the area supplied by the cutaneous saphenous nerve. Results of electromyographic testing were consistent with a severe lesion of the tibial and peroneal nerves at the level of the stifle joint.

Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory surgery revealed an 80-mm-long gap in both the peroneal and tibial branches of the right sciatic nerve. A section of the left cutaneous saphenous nerve was interposed to graft the nerve defects. The dog received joint mechanotherapy and electrophysiologic therapy during the reinnervation process. Ten months after surgery, the dog had recovered almost completely. Neurologic examination revealed diminished flexion of the tarsal and digital joints. Repeat electromyographic testing revealed no abnormal spontaneous electrical activity in the right hind limb musculature, and small compound muscle action potentials were recorded in the right interosseous and cranial tibial muscles.

Clinical Relevance—Without surgical treatment, neurotmesis injury results in poor recovery of motor and sensory functions and may result in amputation. If a nerve defect exists, nerve grafting should be considered, even if the procedure is delayed until well after the injury. The sensory portion of the cutaneous saphenous nerve is a potential source of peripheral nerve for grafting in dogs. Reinnervation is a long-term process and physiologic support and owner involvement are necessary, but nearly complete functional recovery is possible.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the electrophysiological changes in dogs with peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs), evaluate the prevalence of these changes, assess the correlation between spontaneous activity in epaxial muscles and proximal invasion by the tumor, and evaluate whether knowledge of electrophysiological changes could be helpful in the imaging diagnosis via CT or MRI.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—51 dogs with a histologic (n = 18) or a suspected (33) diagnosis of PNST.

Procedures—Clinical, postmortem, and histologic reports and details of electrodiagnostic procedures and CT or MRI reports were studied. Twenty-four CT and 6 MRI reports for dogs with PNSTs were reviewed by a single observer blinded to the diagnosis.

Results—Only 2 of the 51 dogs had no electrophysiological changes. The most commonly affected muscles were those innervated by the radial, ulnar, median, tibial-sciatic, and peroneal nerves. Abnormal spontaneous epaxial muscle activity was significantly more frequent in the group with foraminal or spinal invasion by the tumors. Knowledge of the electrophysiological changes increased diagnostic accuracy of CT.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that electrophysiological studies may be sensitive for the detection of PNST and helpful in the imaging diagnosis. Epaxial electromyographic abnormalities appeared to be predictive for intervertebral or vertebral canal invasion by PNSTs in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 10-year-old spayed female Rottweiler was referred for evaluation because of a 2-month history of regurgitation and weight loss, despite no apparent change in appetite. The dog had received antiemetic and antacid treatment, without improvement.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a low body condition score (2/5), but other findings were unremarkable. Diffuse, global esophageal dilatation was noted on plain thoracic radiographs, and normal motility was confirmed through videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing. Transhepatic ultrasonographic and CT examination revealed a circumferential, intraparietal lesion in the distal portion of the esophagus causing distal esophageal or cardial subobstruction and no metastases. Incisional biopsy of the lesion was performed, and findings of histologic examination supported a diagnosis of esophageal leiomyoma.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME In view of numerous possible complications associated with esophageal surgery, the decision was made to palliatively treat the dog by transcardial placement of a self-expanding, covered, nitinol esophageal stent under endoscopic guidance. Two weeks after stent placement, radiography revealed complete migration of the stent into the gastric lumen. Gastrotomy was performed, and the stent was replaced and fixed in place. Twenty-four months after initial stent placement, the dog had a healthy body condition and remained free of previous clinical signs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Diffuse benign muscular neoplasia should be considered as a differential diagnosis for acquired esophageal dilatation in adult and elderly dogs. In the dog of this report, transcardial stent placement resulted in resolution of the clinical signs, with no apparent adverse effect on digestive function. The described procedure could be beneficial for nonsurgical treatment of benign esophageal tumors in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Interarcuate branch (IAB) is a vascular structure, particularly developed in C2-3 intervertebral space, forming a dorsal bridge that connects ventral venous plexi in the vertebral canal. While precisely described in the human, the precise anatomical features of IABs have not been reported in the veterinary literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the features and relations of IABs in the C2-3 vertebral canal.

ANIMALS

10 dogs were enrolled; 5 dogs for necropsy and 5 dogs for histology.

PROCEDURES

The ventral venous plexi in the cervical spine of 5 dogs were injected with latex and underwent vertebral canal dissection for visual assessment of the IAB. Two out of 5 dogs were injected with the addition of barium sulfate and underwent a CT scan. The C2-3 regions of 5 small-breed dogs were harvested for histological examinations.

RESULTS

IABs arose from the ventral venous plexus at the level of the intervertebral vein; they originated from 2 separate branches located caudally and cranially to the intervertebral foramen, forming a ventrodorsal triangle surrounding the spinal nerve root. No dorsal anastomosis was observed on the CT scan nor at dissection but were observed histologically. A cervical fibrous sheath was observed all around the vertebral canal.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IABs are voluminous venous structures at the C2-3 intervertebral space in dogs and found within a split of the cervical fibrous sheath, which is adherent to the interarcuate ligament and the ligamentum flavum. This anatomical description is paramount when planning an approach to the C2-3 intervertebral space.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research