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  • Author or Editor: Phyllis E. Ciekot x
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Medical records of 25 dogs with histologically low-grade fibrous masses of the maxilla and mandible were reviewed. Most of the dogs had extensive clinical histories and had had previous biopsies of the affected regions, from which specimens were often interpreted as benign fibrous connective tissue. The most common breed represented was Golden Retriever (13/25 dogs, 52%). Skull radiographs were evaluated for 22 dogs, and 16 dogs (72%) had evidence of bone lysis. At admission, none of the dogs had radiographic evidence of pulmonary metastasis. On subsequent examinations and necropsy, prevalence of pulmonary metastasis was 12% (3/25 dogs) and of regional lymph node metastasis, 20% (5/25 dogs). Histologic appearance of all specimens was similar and was characterized by proliferation of fibrous connective tissue, with moderate to low cellularity, that aggressively infiltrated adjacent normal tissue. Treatment modalities varied considerably. Surgical excision in combination with radiation therapy, surgery alone, radiation therapy alone, and radiation therapy used adjunctly with localized hyperthermia prolonged survival times in some dogs. The clinical signs, tumor behavior, and histologic characteristics of these lesions were distinctive from those in previously described oral fibrosarcomas in dogs. Comparatively, these tumors most closely resembled aggressive fibromatoses in human beings in regard to clinical signs, local invasive behavior, and histologic appearance, but differed in the prevalence of metastasis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


A study was undertaken to determine the toxic effects of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, when administered immediately after a 1-hour saline diuresis. Four treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, q 3 wk) were administered iv to 6 healthy dogs over a 20-minute period after 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution was administered iv for 1 hour at a volume of 132 ml (kg)0.75. Each dog vomited at least once within 8 hours after each treatment was administered. Clinical status, body weight, and food consumption were normal throughout the 12-week study for 5 of the 6 dogs. The sixth dog developed acute renal failure and became acutely blind and deaf within 3 days after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Serum electrolyte, creatinine, and urea nitrogen values remained within established normal limits in all dogs immediately prior to each treatment, and in 5 of 6 dogs evaluated 3 weeks after the final treatment. The serum creatinine value (3.3 mg/dl) obtained from the Beagle euthanatized 2 weeks after the fourth treatment was above established normal values. Despite normalcy for all but 1 of the creatinine values, serum creatinine concentration obtained 3 weeks after the final treatment with cisplatin was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than pretreatment values. When compared with data from all other evaluation periods, significant decreases in glomerular filtration rate, as determined by exogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) and endogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) creatinine clearance testing, were identified 3 weeks after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Neutrophil counts decreased significantly below pretreatment values at the third (P = 0.009), fourth (P < 0.0001), and fifth (P < 0.0001) evaluation period. We concluded that cisplatin can be administered with biochemical evidence, but not necessarily clinical evidence, that renal dysfunction may develop after 4 treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2, iv) are administered to dogs, using a 1-hour diuresis protocol.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Eighty-seven cats with histologically confirmed malignant tumors were used in a prospective study to determine the toxicity of mitoxantrone, a dihydroxyquinone derivative of anthracene, which was administered at 21-day intervals at dosages ranging from 2.5 to 6.5 mg/m2 of body surface, iv. Eleven of these cats were treated concurrently with radiation but were evaluated separately. Each cat was evaluated for signs of toxicosis for 3 weeks after each dose was administered or until the cat developed progressive disease, or until the cat's quality of life diminished to an unacceptable level as determined by the owner or attending veterinarian. Although the primary purpose of this study was to determine a clinically useful dosage and to characterize the toxicoses associated with mitoxantrone administration, each cat was monitored for response to treatment. Forty-nine cats had been refractory to 1 or more treatment modalities prior to inclusion in this study.

The most common signs of toxicosis after treatment with mitoxantrone were vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, lethargy, sepsis secondary to myelosuppression, and seizures. Two cats died of complications that may have been attributed to mitoxantrone: 1 of cardiomyopathy and the other of pulmonary edema of an undetermined cause. Older cats were more likely to develop signs of toxicosis after the third or fourth mitoxantrone treatment than younger cats (P ≤ 0.05). Cats with signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval after administration of the first dose of mitoxantrone were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more likely to develop signs of toxicosis during the 21-day interval between the second and third doses of mitoxantrone. Similarly, cats that became toxic during the 21-day interval between the second and third doses were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more likely to become toxic during the 21-day interval between the third and fourth doses. Controlling for age, breed, and dose of mitoxantrone, cats that became toxic after the first treatment were 2.4 times more likely to have poor performance status than the non toxic cats. Tumor-bearing cats had some degree of myelosuppression 7 days after they were given mitoxantrone at 6.5 mg/m2, iv (median neutrophil count, 2,440 cells/μl; range, 1,595 to 6,300 cells/μl).

Complete or partial remission (> 50% reduction volume reduction) was obtained in 18.4% (14/76) of cats given mitoxantrone alone. Remission was recorded in 17.6% (9/51) of cats with carcinoma, 11.8% (2/17) of the cats with lymphoma, and 37.5% (3/8) of the cats with sarcoma.

Because the cats with squamous cell carcinoma had a poor response to mitoxantrone, an additional 11 cats with squamous cell carcinoma were treated concurrently with radiation (44 to 65 Gy, 10 to 15 fractions) over a 3-week period beginning at the time the first dose of mitoxantrone (2.5 to 6 mg/m2) was given. None of these 11 cats had any signs of toxicosis attributable to mitoxantrone chemotherapy. Eight cats had a complete remission (median, 170 days; range, 28 to 485 days), and 1 had a partial remission that lasted 60 days.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association