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  • Author or Editor: Phyllis A. Ciekot x
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Summary

Medical records of 25 dogs with histologically low-grade fibrous masses of the maxilla and mandible were reviewed. Most of the dogs had extensive clinical histories and had had previous biopsies of the affected regions, from which specimens were often interpreted as benign fibrous connective tissue. The most common breed represented was Golden Retriever (13/25 dogs, 52%). Skull radiographs were evaluated for 22 dogs, and 16 dogs (72%) had evidence of bone lysis. At admission, none of the dogs had radiographic evidence of pulmonary metastasis. On subsequent examinations and necropsy, prevalence of pulmonary metastasis was 12% (3/25 dogs) and of regional lymph node metastasis, 20% (5/25 dogs). Histologic appearance of all specimens was similar and was characterized by proliferation of fibrous connective tissue, with moderate to low cellularity, that aggressively infiltrated adjacent normal tissue. Treatment modalities varied considerably. Surgical excision in combination with radiation therapy, surgery alone, radiation therapy alone, and radiation therapy used adjunctly with localized hyperthermia prolonged survival times in some dogs. The clinical signs, tumor behavior, and histologic characteristics of these lesions were distinctive from those in previously described oral fibrosarcomas in dogs. Comparatively, these tumors most closely resembled aggressive fibromatoses in human beings in regard to clinical signs, local invasive behavior, and histologic appearance, but differed in the prevalence of metastasis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Forty-four dogs with histologically confirmed malignant tumors were used in a prospective study to determine the toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agent mitoxantrone, when administered at dosages higher than what has been previously reported for use in dogs. After each dose was administered, dogs were evaluated for signs of toxicosis for 3 weeks or until the dog developed progressive disease, died, or was euthanatized. Forty dogs had been refractory to 1 or more treatment modalities (surgery, n = 26; chemotherapy other than mitoxantrone, n = 17; radiation, n = 2) prior to entering this study. Ten dogs were given mitoxantrone at a dosage of 5.5 mg/m2 of body surface, IV, every 3 weeks (39 total doses); 11 were given mitoxantrone at a dosage of 6.0 mg/m2, IV, every 3 weeks (26 total doses); and 23 were given mitoxantrone at a dosage of 6.5 mg/m2, IV, every 3 weeks (70 total doses).

The most common signs of toxicosis were vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, lethargy, and sepsis secondary to myelosuppression. Two dogs, both of which received the highest dosage, died of complications attributable to mitoxantrone administration. The prevalence of toxicoses was not associated with age, breed, sex, tumor type, number of doses, or dosage. Dogs did develop myelosuppression 7 days after they were given mitoxantrone. Median neutrophil count for dogs that received mitoxantrone at a dosage of 6.5 mg/m2 was 2,800 cells/μl (range, 300 to 4,600 cells/μl); median neutrophil count for dogs that received mitoxantrone at a dosage of 6.0 mg/m2 was 3,800 cells/μl (range, 600 to 10,400 cells/μl); and median neutrophil count for dogs that received mitoxantrone at a dosage of 5.5 mg/m2 was 4,500 cells/μl (range, 1,700 to 16,100 cells/μl).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A study was undertaken to determine the toxic effects of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, when administered immediately after a 1-hour saline diuresis. Four treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, q 3 wk) were administered iv to 6 healthy dogs over a 20-minute period after 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution was administered iv for 1 hour at a volume of 132 ml (kg)0.75. Each dog vomited at least once within 8 hours after each treatment was administered. Clinical status, body weight, and food consumption were normal throughout the 12-week study for 5 of the 6 dogs. The sixth dog developed acute renal failure and became acutely blind and deaf within 3 days after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Serum electrolyte, creatinine, and urea nitrogen values remained within established normal limits in all dogs immediately prior to each treatment, and in 5 of 6 dogs evaluated 3 weeks after the final treatment. The serum creatinine value (3.3 mg/dl) obtained from the Beagle euthanatized 2 weeks after the fourth treatment was above established normal values. Despite normalcy for all but 1 of the creatinine values, serum creatinine concentration obtained 3 weeks after the final treatment with cisplatin was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than pretreatment values. When compared with data from all other evaluation periods, significant decreases in glomerular filtration rate, as determined by exogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) and endogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) creatinine clearance testing, were identified 3 weeks after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Neutrophil counts decreased significantly below pretreatment values at the third (P = 0.009), fourth (P < 0.0001), and fifth (P < 0.0001) evaluation period. We concluded that cisplatin can be administered with biochemical evidence, but not necessarily clinical evidence, that renal dysfunction may develop after 4 treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2, iv) are administered to dogs, using a 1-hour diuresis protocol.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research