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  • Author or Editor: Phillip Lerch x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—40 horses.

Procedure—Horses were premedicated with xylazine and anesthetized with diazepam and ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained by infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine and inhalation of sevoflurane (20 horses) or by inhalation of sevoflurane (20 horses). A surgical plane of anesthesia was maintained by controlling the inhaled concentration of sevoflurane. Sodium pentothal was administered as necessary to prevent movement in response to surgical stimulation. Hypotension was treated with dobutamine; hypoxemia and hypercarbia were treated with intermittent positive- pressure ventilation. The quality of anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery and the quality of the transition to inhalation anesthesia were scored.

Results—The delivered concentration of sevoflurane (ie, the vaporizer dial setting) was significantly lower and the quality of transition to inhalation anesthesia and of anesthetic maintenance were significantly better in horses that received the guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion than in horses that did not. Five horses, all of which received sevoflurane alone, required administration of pentothal. Recovery time and quality of recovery were not significantly different between groups, but horses that received the guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion required fewer attempts to stand.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that in horses, the combination of a guaifenesin-ketamine- medetomidine infusion and inhalation of sevoflurane resulted in better transition and maintenance phases while improving cardiovascular function and reducing the number of attempts needed to stand after the completion of anesthesia, compared with inhalation of sevoflurane. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1150–1155)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine and xylazine when used for premedication of horses undergoing general anesthesia.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—40 horses.

Procedure—Twenty horses were premedicated with medetomidine (10 µg/kg [4.5 µg/lb], IM) and the other 20 were premedicated with xylazine (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/kg], IM). Horses were then anesthetized with a combination of guaifenesin and ketamine; anesthesia was maintained with halothane. Additional doses of medetomidine or xylazine were given if horses were not sufficiently sedated at the time of anesthetic induction. After induction of anesthesia, sodium pentothal was administered as necessary to prevent limb movements. Hypotension was treated with dobutamine; hypoventilation and hypoxemia were treated with intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. The quality of anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery and the quality of the transition to inhalation anesthesia were scored.

Results—Scores for the quality of the transition to inhalation anesthesia were significantly higher for horses premedicated with medetomidine than for horses premedicated with xylazine. However, other scores, recovery times, and numbers of attempts needed to achieve sternal recumbency and to stand were not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that medetomidine is suitable for premedication of horses undergoing general anesthesia. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine were similar to those of xylazine, except that the transition to inhalation anesthesia was smoother when horses were premedicated with medetomidine, rather than xylazine. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1144–1149)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association