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Summary

The hemodynamic effects of 2 dosages of ephedrine were studied in 6 dogs anesthetized with isoflurane only (end-tidal concentration equivalent to 1.5 times minimum alveolar concentration). Following instrumentation, baseline (time 0) measurements included heart rate (hr), respiratory rate, mean arterial blood pressure (map), cardiac output, and blood gas tensions. Cardiac index (ci), stroke volume (sv), systemic vascular resistance (svr), arterial oxygen content (Cao2 ), and oxygen delivery and consumption (Do2 and Vo2 , respectively) were calculated. Three dogs were given ephedrine iv at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg of body weight, and 3 dogs were given ephedrine iv at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg. Measurements were recorded at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Each dog then received the alternate dosage of ephedrine, and measurements were again recorded at the same intervals. Effects of ephedrine varied with dosage. Neither dosage was associated with significant changes in pH, Pao2 , Paco2 , Vo2 , or respiratory rate. Ephedrine at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg caused transient significant increases in map, ci, sv, Cao2 , and Do2 , significant decreases in hr and svr, and a late, slight decrease in Cao2 . Ephedrine at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg caused a greater and more prolonged increase in map, as well as increases in ci, sv, and svr, and a decrease in hr. The higher dosage of ephedrine also caused a pronounced increase in hemoglobin concentration and CaO2 , resulting in a 20 to 35% increase in Do2 throughout the 60-minute experiment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine the cardiopulmonary effects of anesthesia induced and maintained with isoflurane (ISO) in cats.

Animals

8 healthy cats between 1 and 5 years old.

Procedure

Anesthesia was induced with ISO in oxygen. Two anesthetic depths were maintained in each cat; mean alveolar concentrations (MAC) were 1.3 and 2.0 times MAC. Ventilation was either spontaneous or controlled. Each cat received each treatment combination according to a Latin square design. Cardiopulmonary measurements were made after 20 minutes of constant conditions with each combination of anesthetic depth and ventilatory mode.

Results

Cardiac index was not different between ISO doses, but 2.0 MAC ISO reduced arterial blood pressure and total peripheral resistance. Cardiac index and systolic arterial blood pressure were reduced by controlled ventilation. The PaCO2 and pulmonary artery pressure were highest in association with 2.0 MAC ISO during spontaneous ventilation. Changes in pHa were attributable to changes in PaCO2 .

Conclusions

2.0 MAC ISO causes hypotension and hypercapnia; however, cardiac index is maintained. Hypercapnia may be abolished with controlled ventilation, but at the expense of reduced cardiac index. 1.3 MAC ISO results in minimal cardiopulmonary depression, especially when healthy cats are allowed to breathe spontaneously.

Clinical Relevance

Hypoventilation associated with untoward physiologic responses to 2.0 MAC may be overcome with controlled ventilation, but results in marked reduction in cardiovascular performance; thus, use of 2.0 MAC ISO should be avoided in cats. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:182–185)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of sedation achieved by xylazine (XYL) or acepromazine (ACE) on cardiopulmonary function and uterine blood flow in cows in late gestation.

Animals—8 cows between 219 and 241 days of gestation.

Procedure—Doses of ACE (0.02 mg/kg) or XYL (0.04 mg/kg) were administered IV. Measurements were obtained to determine cardiopulmonary effects and oxygen delivery to the uterus.

Results—Heart rate was not significantly affected by administration of ACE, but it decreased markedly after administration of XYL. Uterine artery flow was decreased at all times by XYL and was always less than for ACE. Xylazine increased uterine vascular resistance through 30 minutes and caused reduced PaO2 and increased PaCO2 at all time periods. Acepromazine caused a 5% decrease in PaO2 only at 5 minutes. Xylazine reduced oxygen delivery by 59% at 5 minutes and 32% at 45 minutes. In contrast, ACE caused a nonsignificant reduction of oxygen delivery by 16% at 15 minutes and a return to baseline values by 45 minutes

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Xylazine markedly reduces flow and availability of oxygenated blood to the uterus, which may critically impair delivery of oxygen to the fetus at a stressful and important time of development or delivery. Acepromazine was associated with slight reductions of much shorter duration. When XYL is used to sedate pregnant cows, it could impose physiologic distress on the fetus and potentially increase fetal morbidity and mortality. When sedation of the dam is desirable, ACE could be an alternative to XYL. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1695–1699)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare recoveries from anesthesia of horses placed on a conventional padded stall floor or on a specially designed air pillow.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—409 horses (> 1 year old) that were anesthetized for surgical procedures during a 37-month period.

Procedures—By random allocation, horses were allowed to recover from anesthesia in either a foammat–padded recovery stall or an identical recovery stall equipped with a rapidly inflating-deflating air pillow. All recoveries were videotaped for subsequent analysis by an independent evaluator. Times to first movement, first attempt to attain sternal recumbency, attainment of sternal recumbency, first attempt to stand, and successful standing were recorded. The numbers of attempts before achieving sternal recumbency and standing were counted, and scores for quality of standing and overall recovery were assigned. Recovery-related variables were compared between groups.

Results—Compared with horses allowed to recover in a conventional manner, horses that recovered from anesthesia on the air pillow had a significantly longer rest period before attempting to attain sternal recumbency and rise to standing. Once the pillow was deflated, horses were able to stand after significantly fewer attempts and the quality of their standing was significantly better. Between the 2 groups of horses, there was no significant difference in overall recovery quality scores. The air pillow and padded floor systems were equally safe.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that use of a rapidly inflating-deflating air pillow promotes a longer period of recumbency and a better quality of standing after anesthesia in horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To measure cardiopulmonary variables, including cardiac index, in dogs with naturally acquired gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).

Design

Prospective clinical study.

Animals

6 dogs with GDV.

Procedure

In addition to typical medical and surgical management of GDV, the dorsal metatarsal and pulmonary arteries and right atrium of the dogs were catheterized to obtain cardiopulmonary measurements before and during anesthesia and surgery.

Results

All dogs underwent gastropexy but none required gastrectomy. Mean cardiac index and mean arterial blood pressure for this small population of dogs with GDV were not significantly different from those reported for clinically normal awake or anesthetized dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Dogs with naturally acquired GDV without gastric necrosis may not have the classic characteristics, including decreased cardiac index and hypotension, of hypovolemic circulatory shock. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:484—488).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To elucidate the species and biovariants of Pasteurellaceae isolated from clinically normal bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) or bighorn sheep with evidence of respiratory disease.

Sample—675 Pasteurellaceae isolates from 290 free-ranging bighorn sheep in Idaho, Oregon and Wyoming.

Procedures—Nasal and oropharyngeal swab specimens were inoculated onto selective and nonselective blood agar media. Representatives of each colony type were classified via a biovariant scheme. The association of respective β-hemolytic isolates with respiratory disease was evaluated via χ2 analyses.

Results—Bacterial isolates belonged to 4 species: Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi. Within the latter 3 species, 112 subspecies, biotypes, and biovariants were identified. Bibersteinia trehalosi 2 and B trehalosi 2B constituted 345 of 675 (51%) isolates. Most (597/618 [97%]) isolates from adult sheep were from clinically normal animals, whereas most (47/57 [82%]) isolates from lambs were from animals with evidence of respiratory disease. Twenty-two Pasteurellaceae biovariants were isolated from sheep with respiratory disease; 17 of these biovariants were also isolated from clinically normal sheep. The ability of isolates to cause β-hemolysis on blood agar was associated with respiratory disease in adult bighorn sheep (OR, 2.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 6.07).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bighorn lambs appeared more susceptible to respiratory disease caused by Pasteurellaceae than did adult sheep. β-Hemolytic Pasteurellaceae isolates were more likely to be associated with respiratory disease than were non–β-hemolytic isolates in adult sheep. Identification of Pasteurellaceae with the greatest pathogenic potential will require studies to estimate the risk of disease from specific biovariants.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine cross-reactivity of aeroallergens in Colorado and surrounding states by evaluating concurrent positive reactions of related and nonrelated allergens of intradermal tests in dogs.

Sample Population—Intradermal test results of 268 atopic dogs.

Procedure—A retrospective evaluation of skin test results for 268 dogs was performed. Pairs of closely related and nonrelated allergens were evaluated. Group 1 consisted of closely related allergens with demonstrated antibody cross-reactivity in humans. In group 2, allergens of the same plant group (ie, trees, grasses, or weeds) that were not closely related were paired. In group 3, allergen pairs were of different plant groups. Plant allergens were paired with dust mite allergens, animal dander, or mold spores in group 4. In the last group, allergens not derived from plants were paired. Data were evaluated twice by use of a different definition of a positive reaction. Significance of the difference between group means of log odds ratios was estimated by use of a bootstrap percentile confidence interval.

Results—Significant differences in the number of concurrent positive reactions were not found between related versus nonrelated grass, weed, or tree allergens. Significant differences in the number of concurrent positive reactions were found between plant allergens of different groups (ie, grasses, weeds, and trees) and plant allergens of the same groups, related or nonrelated , as well as between plant-derived and nonplant-derived allergens. Many dogs reacting to a specific allergen did not react to a closely related allergen at the same time.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—These results provide evidence against clinically relevant cross-reactivity and suggest that allergen-specific immunotherapy should be formulated on the basis of single allergen test results. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:874–879)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a method of aerobic bacteriologic culture of epidermal collarette specimens from dogs with superficial pyoderma and compare results with those for aerobic bacteriologic culture of abdominal skin specimens in healthy dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—22 dogs with epidermal collarettes and 24 healthy dogs.

Procedure–Dry sterile cotton swabs were rolled across epidermal collarettes or hairless areas of abdominal skin in healthy dogs and submitted for aerobic bacteriologic culture. Hemolytic colonies of gram-positive–staining cocci were tested for catalase production, and if results were positive, a coagulase test was performed. Colonies with coagulase activity were tested for the ability to ferment mannitol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all Staphylococcus spp that were isolated.

ResultsS intermedius was isolated from collarettes in 18 of 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma but not from healthy dogs. Estimated sensitivity and specificity of the culture method were 81.8% and 100%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the ability to culture S intermedius, the number of S intermedius isolates without resistance to antimicrobials, and the number of S intermedius isolates resistant to penicillin G when comparing dogs with superficial pyoderma for the first time and dogs with recurrent pyoderma, dogs that did or did not receive concurrent antimicrobials, and dogs with and without underlying allergic disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance–Bacteriologic culture of epidermal collarette specimens was a simple and reliable method for identification of S intermedius in dogs with superficial pyoderma, regardless of history of pyoderma or current antimicrobial use. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:904–908)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether serum or synovial fluid concentrations of chondroitin sulfate epitope 846 and carboxy propeptides of type II collagen (CPII) can be used to diagnose osteochondral fragmentation (OC) in horses.

Animals

38 horses with unilateral OC of the radiocarpal (n = 31) or intercarpal (33) joints and 8 clinically and radiographically normal horses.

Procedures

For horses with OC, serum and synovial fluid concentrations of epitope 846, CPII, and keratan sulfate (KS) were determined, along with synovial fluid WBC counts and total protein concentrations. Serum epitope 846, CPII, and KS concentrations were measured in control horses.

Results

Synovial fluid epitope 846 and total protein concentrations were significantly higher in the joints with OC than in unaffected joints, but CPII and KS concentrations and WBC counts were not. Synovial fluid total protein and 846 epitope concentrations were linearly related to grade of OC. Serum epitope 846 and CPII concentrations were significantly higher in horses with OC than in control horses. Discriminant analysis allowed 27 of 34 (79%) horses to be correctly classified as having or not having OC on the basis of serum epitope 846 and CPII concentrations.

Conclusions

Results suggest that serum and synovial fluid concentrations of epitope 846 and CPII are associated with OC. Increases in concentrations of epitope 846 and CPII suggest that increased synthesis of cartilage aggrecan and type II procollagen may be associated with OC.

Clinical Relevance

Measurement of serum epitope 846 and CPII concentrations may be useful in the diagnosis of OC in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:306–309)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The uterine hemodynamic response to maternal positioning in dorsal recumbency was evaluated in 7 conscious pregnant cows during the third trimester. Anesthetic or sedative drugs were not administered. Uterine artery flow was measured, using a previously implanted ultrasonic flow probe. Catheters implanted in the uterine artery and vein were used for measurement of blood pressure and for blood sample collections. Heart rate, systemic arterial pressure, uterine arterial blood flow, arterial and venous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, and pH were measured in cows in standing position. Cows were cast with ropes and positioned in dorsal recumbency, then measurements were repeated at 15 and 30 minutes. Compared with standing measurements, dorsal recumbency caused 50% increase in heart rate and 44% increase in arterial blood pressure. Uterine artery flow did not change significantly. Despite increased ventilation, arterial oxygenation was reduced during dorsal recumbency. There were minimal differences between measurements at 15 and 30 minutes of dorsal recumbency.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research