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Objective—To identify risk factors such as signalment, previous competition miles completed, ride characteristics, and physical examination variables associated with the elimination of horses during endurance competitions.

Design—Retrospective observational study.

Sample—Veterinary records for 3,493 endurance horse competition starts.

Procedures—Records were requested of all sanctioned 2007 endurance horse competitions in the United States. Only rides that provided data from all horses were included. The horse's signalment, previous endurance competition record, specific ride characteristics, weight division (ie, based on rider's weight with tack), and physical examination variables throughout the ride were included for analysis. Examination variables were separated into abnormalities occurring prior to the start of the ride, during the first half of the ride, and during the second half of the ride. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for overall elimination and elimination subcategories (lameness and metabolic).

Results—Specific breeds, the heavyweight division, and distance of the ride were all associated with an increased risk of elimination. A variety of examination variables prior to the start of the ride and during the ride were associated with elimination and included heart rate, cardiac recovery index, and abnormal gastrointestinal sounds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that specific risk factors were associated with elimination of horses from endurance competitions. These factors may be used to help identify horses at higher risk for elimination and prevent morbidity associated with competition.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether peripheral venous pressure (PVP) was correlated with central venous pressure (CVP) when measured by use of different catheter sizes, catheterization sites, and body positions in awake dogs and cats.

Animals—36 dogs and 10 cats.

Procedures—Dogs and cats with functional jugular and peripheral venous catheters were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous catheters (18 to 24 gauge) were placed in a cephalic, lateral saphenous, or medial saphenous vein. Central venous catheters (5.5 to 8.5 F) were placed in the jugular vein and advanced into the cranial vena cava. Catheters were connected to pressure transducers and a blood pressure monitor capable of displaying 2 simultaneous pressure tracings. For each animal, the mean of 5 paired measurements of PVP and CVP was calculated. The relationship between PVP and CVP when measured by use of different catheter sizes, catheterization sites, and body positions was determined.

Results—Mean ± SD PVP was 5.7 ± 5.8 mm Hg higher than CVP in dogs and 6.0 ± 6.9 mm Hg higher than CVP in cats. However, results of multiple regression analysis did not indicate a significant correlation between PVP and CVP, regardless of catheter size, catheter position, or body position. The relationship was weak in both dogs and cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The PVP was poorly correlated with CVP when different catheter sizes, catheterization sites, and patient positions were evaluated. Peripheral venous pressure should not be used to approximate CVP in awake dogs and cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To detect contamination of wound sites from surgical handling of excised tissues during total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in dogs, and to compare susceptibility of bacterial isolates to cefazolin with susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents.


Prospective clinical study.


13 dogs


Dogs were treated surgically for otitis externa and media via total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy. Specimens for aerobic bacterial culture were obtained from SC tissue immediately following skin incision, tissues excised from the osseous bulla (after transection of the horizontal ear canal and lateral bulla osteotomy), and from SC tissue prior to skin closure. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates to various antibiotics was determined by use of a broth dilution assay.


There was a significant association between isolation of Streptococcus canis and Escherichia coli from specimens from the osseous bulla and specimens from the SC tissues prior to skin closure, indicating contamination of the SC tissues during surgery. Seventy percent of bacterial isolates were susceptible to cefazolin.

Clinical Implications

Measures to limit bacterial contamination resulting from tissue handling during total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy are necessary. Bactériologic culture of tissue of the osseous bulla and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility are recommended. Administration of cefazolin alone may not be efficacious for antimicrobial prophylaxis. (J Am Vet Med Asooc 1999;214:1641-1643)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess the clinical course of disease and risk factors associated with outcome in dogs with tetanus.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—38 dogs with tetanus.

Procedures—Data were collected from medical records of dogs with tetanus, including signalment; wound characteristics; initial clinical signs; severity of worst clinical signs; time to wound management, antimicrobial treatment, and antitoxin administration; and 28-day survival rate. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate relationships between the potentially predictive variables and disease progression and outcome.

Results—The 28-day survival rate was 77% (among 35 uncensored dogs). The most common initial clinical signs in affected dogs were ocular (n = 18) and facial (11) abnormalities. Nineteen dogs progressed to recumbency with severe muscle spasms, and 14 dogs had high or low heart rate or blood pressure values. Eight dogs died or were euthanized because of complications of tetanus. There was a significant association between younger age and development of more severe clinical signs. Furthermore, a significant inverse relationship between development of severe clinical signs and survival was identified. There was no as-sociation between earlier initiation of wound management, antimicrobial administration, or antitoxin administration and either progression of signs or 28-day survival rate. Wound type was not associated with 28-day survival rate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that younger dogs with tetanus may be more likely to develop severe clinical signs. The prognosis for survival in dogs with tetanus is good if abnormalities in heart rate or blood pressure values do not develop.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate perioperative morbidity and outcome in dogs and cats undergoing esophageal surgery.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 63 client-owned dogs and 9 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent esophageal surgery were reviewed for information on signalment, history, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, condition treated, details of surgery, intraoperative complications, and postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up data were obtained via veterinarian and client telephone conversations. The relationship between complications and survival to hospital discharge was evaluated by means of regression analysis.

RESULTS The most common indication for surgical intervention was an esophageal foreign body in dogs (50/63 [79%]) and esophageal stricture in cats (3/9). Complications were documented in 54% (34/63) of dogs and 3 of 9 cats. The most common immediate postoperative complications were respiratory in nature (9 dogs, 1 cat). Partial esophagectomy and resection with anastomosis were significantly associated with the development of immediate postoperative complications in dogs. The most common delayed postoperative complications were persistent regurgitation (7 dogs) and esophageal stricture formation (3 dogs, 1 cat). For dogs, a mass lesion and increasing lesion size were significantly associated with the development of delayed postoperative complications. Six dogs (10%) and 1 cat died or were euthanized prior to discharge, and pneumomediastinum and leukopenia were negative prognostic factors for dogs being discharged from the hospital.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study suggested that the short-term prognosis for dogs and cats that survive surgery for treatment of esophageal lesions is favorable, with 90% of patients discharged from the hospital (57/63 dogs; 8/9 cats). However, dogs treated for more extensive esophageal lesions as well as those undergoing esophagectomy or resection and anastomosis were more likely to develop postoperative complications.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association