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Objective

To compare analgesic and adverse effects of ketoprofen and carprofen when used to control pain associated with elective orthopedic surgeries in dogs.

Design

Prospective randomized clinical trial.

Animals

93 client-owned dogs: 46 undergoing reconstruction of the cranial cruciate ligament, 47 undergoing femoral head and neck excision, and 15 control dogs anesthetized for radiographic procedures.

Procedure

Dogs undergoing surgery were randomly given ketoprofen, carprofen, or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, SC, prior to surgery. Pain score and serum cortisol concentration were recorded for 12 hours after surgery for all dogs. When pain score was ≥ 7, oxymorphone was administered IM. Bleeding time was measured prior to and during surgery.

Results

The proportion of dogs that required oxymorphone was significantly higher for the carprofen and placebo groups than for the ketoprofen group. Pain score for the placebo group was significantly higher than for the ketoprofen and carprofen groups, 2,8, and 9 hours after surgery. Cortisol concentration was significantly higher for the placebo group than for the carprofen group at 4 and 6 hours after surgery. Significant differences were not detected between ketoprofen and carprofen groups with respect to pain score and cortisol concentration. Bleeding time was significantly longer for the ketoprofen group than for the other groups during surgery. One dog treated with ketoprofen developed a hematoma at the surgical site.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Ketoprofen and carprofen given prior to surgery were effective for postoperative pain relief in dogs. However, ketoprofen should not be used when noncompressible bleeding may be a problem. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1105–1110)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the usefulness of Doppler-derived peak flow velocity through the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT Vmax) and effective orifice area indexed to body surface area (EOAi) in puppies to predict development of subaortic stenosis (SAS) in the same dogs as adults.

Design—Prospective, longitudinal, observational study.

Animals—38 Golden Retrievers.

Procedures—Cardiac auscultation and echocardiography were performed on 2- to 6-month-old puppies, then repeated at 12 to 18 months. Subaortic stenosis was diagnosed when LVOT Vmax was ≥ 2.3 m/s in adult dogs with left basilar systolic murmurs.

Results—All puppies with EOAi < 1.46 cm2/m2 had SAS as adults. All adults with EOAi < 1.29 cm2/m2 had SAS. An LVOT Vmax > 2.3 m/s in puppyhood was 63% sensitive and 100% specific for SAS in adulthood. In puppies, LVOT Vmax was more strongly associated with a future diagnosis of SAS (area under the curve [AUC], 0.89) than was EOAi (AUC, 0.80). In puppies, the combination of LVOT Vmax and EOAi yielded slightly higher sensitivity (69%) and specificity (100%) for adult SAS than did LVOT Vmax alone. In unaffected and affected dogs, LVOT Vmax increased significantly from puppyhood to adulthood but EOAi did not.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In Golden Retriever puppies, LVOT Vmax > 2.3 m/s and EOAi < 1.46 cm2/m2 were both associated with a diagnosis of SAS at adulthood. The combination of these 2 criteria may result in higher sensitivity for SAS screening. Unlike LVOT Vmax, EOAi did not change during growth in either unaffected Golden Retrievers or those with SAS.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether postoperative administration of ketoprofen or carprofen had any effects on short- or long-term results of femoral head and neck excision (FHNE) in dogs.

Design—Prospective randomized controlled trial.

Animals—40 client-owned, large-breed dogs undergoing FHNE and 15 healthy large-breed dogs used as controls for hip joint angle measurements and force plate analyses.

Procedure—Dogs undergoing FHNE were treated with ketoprofen, carprofen, or a placebo for 21 days after surgery. Hip joint abduction and extension angles were measured at the end of surgery and 120 days later. Lameness scores were assigned, and force plate analyses were performed on days 3, 15, and 120.

Results—There were no significant differences among treatment groups in regard to hip joint angles or lameness scores. Force plate analysis revealed that dogs in all 3 treatment groups bore consistently less weight on the operated limb than did control dogs for the duration of the study. Dogs receiving ketoprofen had greater peak propulsive force at a walk on day 3 and greater peak vertical force at a walk on day 15 than did dogs receiving the placebo. Treatment of an acute condition and preservation of the lesser trochanter, but not postoperative analgesic administration, were positively associated with ground reaction forces on day 120. Owners of 12 of 31 dogs indicated that the dog's gait worsened for a few days after discontinuation of analgesic administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of ketoprofen or carprofen after surgery was not associated with long-term results of FHNE, probably because of the impact of other factors. Because some owners noticed worsening of the lameness following cessation of analgesic administration in the present study, it is possible that longer administration would have improved long-term results. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1006–1012)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of adverse effects associated with epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine in dogs and cats undergoing surgery and evaluate effects of epidural administration of morphine on postoperative pain severity.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—242 dogs and 23 cats.

Procedure—Morphine with or without bupivacaine was administered prior to surgery with a Tuohy needle, spinal needle, or epidural catheter. In 18 dogs that underwent surgery twice, results of preemptive epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine were compared with results of systemic administration of oxymorphone and ketoprofen.

Results—The delivered fraction of isoflurane was significantly lower in animals given morphine and bupivacaine than in animals given morphine alone. Analgesia was of significantly longer duration in dogs given morphine and bupivacaine than in dogs given morphine alone. During anesthesia, mild respiratory and cardiovascular depression was reported. Seven dogs and 2 cats had urine retention, and 2 dogs developed pruritus. Six dogs vomited when a second dose of morphine was given epidurally the day after surgery. Eight of 72 dogs had delayed hair growth. In 18 dogs that underwent surgery twice, the delivered fraction of isoflurane was significantly lower and the duration of analgesia was significantly longer when morphine with or without bupivacaine was given epidurally than when oxymorphone and ketoprofen were given.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that preemptive epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine is a safe and effective method of inducing long-lasting analgesia in dogs and cats and is superior to standard management of postoperative pain with repeated injection of oxymorphone and ketoprofen. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:666–672)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To compare analgesic effects of ketoprofen, oxymorphone hydrochloride, and butorphanol when used to control postoperative pain associated with elective orthopedic surgery in dogs.

Design—

Prospective randomized clinical trial.

Animals—

70 dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery on a hind limb.

Procedure—

Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 postoperative analgesic treatment groups: ketoprofen alone, oxymorphone alone, butorphanol alone, or ketoprofen-oxymorphone. Drugs were given IM at the end of anesthesia. Pain score, sedation score, arterial blood pressures, arterial blood gas partial pressures, and plasma Cortisol concentration were measured for 12 hours after surgery. If the pain score was ≥ 9, supplemental oxymorphone was administered IM.

Results—

The proportion of dogs that did not require supplemental treatment with oxymorphone was significantly higher for the ketoprofen alone and ketoprofen-oxymorphone groups than for the oxymorphone alone group. During the first hour after surgery, pain score was lower for oxymorphone alone and ketoprofen-oxymorphone groups than for ketoprofen or butorphanol alone groups. Significant differences were not detected among groups in regard to pain score 2 and 3 hours after surgery or in regard to arterial blood pressures at any time. From 4 to 12 hours after surgery, pain score was significantly lower for the ketoprofen alone group than for other groups. Plasma Cortisol concentration was significantly higher for the oxymorphone alone group 6 and 8 hours after surgery, compared with other groups.

Clinical Implications—

Except during the first hour after surgery, dogs given ketoprofen alone after elective orthopedic surgery had a greater level of, and longer-lasting, analgesia than did dogs given oxymorphone or butorphanol alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:438–444)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association