Objective—To evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum on cardiorespiratory variables and working space during experimental induction of 3 intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) in cats.
Animals—6 healthy young adult neutered male domestic shorthair cats.
Procedures—All cats were anesthetized through use of a standardized protocol. A catheter was placed in the right femoral artery for blood pressure and blood gas monitoring. A thermodilution catheter was placed in the right jugular vein via fluoroscopic guidance. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured before (baseline) and 2 and 30 minutes after initiation of pneumoperitoneum at IAPs of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg; these were created through the use of a mechanical insufflator. At each IAP, abdominal dimensions (height, width, and circumference) were measured at a standardized location.
Results—At 4 mm Hg and 8 mm Hg IAP, no clinically important changes were identified in cardiorespiratory values. Heart rate, cardiac index, and stroke volume index remained unchanged throughout the study at all IAPs. Mean arterial blood pressure began to increase at 8 mm Hg and was significantly higher, compared with baseline, at both time points at 15 mm Hg. At 15 mm Hg, Paco2 was significantly higher and cats were more acidotic than at baseline. Working space was subjectively greater at 8 mm Hg than at 4 mm Hg IAP; however, at 15 mm Hg, no clinically important enlargement of the working space was identified, compared with at 8 mm Hg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values of cardiopulmonary variables were largely unchanged by induction of pneumoperitoneum in healthy cats up to an IAP of 8 mm Hg, and no clinically important increases in working space were evident at an IAP of 15 versus 8 mm Hg. These findings provide little justification for use of IAPs > 8 mm Hg in healthy cats undergoing laparoscopic procedures; however, whether the situation is similar in diseased or elderly cats remains to be determined.
Objective—To describe a method for ultrasonographic and color-flow Doppler ultrasonographic imaging of the 4 direct cutaneous arteries commonly used for axial pattern skin flaps in dogs.
Animals—20 clinically normal dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were manually restrained and fundamental and harmonic ultrasonographic and colorflow Doppler ultrasonographic examinations of the superficial cervical, thoracodorsal, deep circumflex iliac (cranial and caudal branches), and caudal superficial epigastric arteries were performed by a resident in diagnostic imaging. The level of confidence in locating these vessels was subjectively graded as high, moderate, or low.
Results—High-frequency fundamental and harmonic ultrasonography was important for maximizing image resolution, and color-flow Doppler ultrasonography was important for vessel identification. The superficial cervical artery was the most difficult vessel to identify; confidence in correct vessel identification was low or moderate. The thoracodorsal and deep circumflex iliac arteries were identified with a moderate or high level of confidence. The caudal superficial epigastric artery was the easiest vessel to identify; confidence in correct vessel identification was high. Except for the superficial cervical artery, the level of confidence in correct vessel identification improved over time as operator experience increased.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the combination of fundamental ultrasonographic and color-flow Doppler ultrasonographic imaging is an easy and noninvasive method for identifying the 4 direct cutaneous arteries commonly used for axial pattern skin flaps in dogs. This method could be useful in planning axial pattern skin flaps, particularly in dogs with regional soft tissue trauma in which the integrity of the vessel is in question.
To determine if computed tomographic lymphangiography (CTL) after ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of intrahepatic iopamidol (Isovue 370) in healthy cats would safely and effectively lead to opacification of the hepatic lymphatics, cisterna chyli, and thoracic ducts (TDs).
A prospective pilot study design with randomization of the sides of the liver injected.
6 purpose-bred cats.
Cats were anesthetized and based on random assignment, and the left or right liver was injected with iodinated contrast material. CTL images were taken at 5, 10, and 15 minutes postinjection to determine the quality of opacification of the cisterna chyli and TDs.
Eleven hepatic injections from 6 cats were available for review. One CT file was corrupted and unusable. Seven out of 11 hepatic contrast injections yielded a diagnostic study. Five out of 11 were graded as excellent, 0/11 were graded as good, and 2/11 were graded as fair. Opacification of the cisterna chyli and TDs was absent in 4/11 studies. Three out of 6 cats had mild to moderate increases in hepatocellular enzymes when assayed 3 months postprocedure. The hepatic lymphatics, cisterna chyli, and TDs were opacified in all studies deemed diagnostic.
Intrahepatic contrast injection offers a novel portal for thoracic duct lymphangiography that documents the hepatic contribution to the mesenteric lymphatics, cisterna chyli, and thoracic duct. The procedure may be helpful in the preoperative diagnostic evaluation of cats with chylothorax.
Objective—To describe and evaluate the outcome of cystoscopic-guided laser ablation of intramural ureteral ectopia in male dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—4 incontinent male dogs with intramural ureteral ectopia.
Procedures—Intramural ectopic ureters were diagnosed via preoperative computed tomography–IV urography and subsequent cystoscopy. Transurethral cystoscopic-guided laser ablation (diode laser [n = 3 dogs] and holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser ) was performed to proximally relocate the ectopic ureteral orifice to the urinary bladder. Fluoroscopy was used during the procedures to confirm that the ureteral tract was intramural and the ureteral orifice was intravesicular after the procedure. In 1 dog with bilateral ureteral ectopia, staged laser ablation was performed at 6-week intervals because of difficulty viewing the second ureter on the first attempt. All ureteral orifices were initially located in the middle to proximal portion of the prostatic portion of the urethra. Six weeks after surgery, imaging was repeated in 3 of 4 dogs.
Results—Postoperative dysuria or hematuria did not develop. All dogs were immediately continent after laser treatment and remained so at a median follow-up period of 18 months (range, 15 to 20 months) without medical management.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ureteral ectopia can cause urinary incontinence in male dogs and is usually associated with other urinary tract abnormalities. Cystoscopicguided laser ablation provided an effective and minimally invasive alternative to surgical management of intramural ureteral ectopia.
Objective—To report and compare the surgical site infection (SSI) rates for clean and clean-contaminated procedures performed by either a minimally invasive surgical or open surgical approach in a large population of dogs and cats.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—179 patients (dogs and cats) undergoing minimally invasive abdominal or thoracic surgery.
Procedures—Case information from all animals that underwent minimally invasive abdominal or thoracic surgery was prospectively collected and compared with an existing database of the same information collected from 379 patients undergoing laparotomy or thoracotomy via an open surgical approach. For both groups, an SSI was defined as any surgical wound in which purulent discharge was observed within 14 days after the procedure. Follow-up for all patients was obtained by direct examination or telephone interviews.
Results—Overall SSI rate in the minimally invasive surgery (MIS) group was 1.7% and in the open surgery (OS) group was 5.5%. On univariate analysis, there was a significantly lower SSI rate in the MIS group, compared with the SSI rate for the OS group. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, this difference appeared to be a result of the fact that surgery times were longer (median, 105 vs 75 minutes) and hair was clipped ≥ 4 hours prior to surgery for more animals (23% vs 11 %) in the OS group, compared with the MIS group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MIS may be associated with a lower SSI rate, compared with OS, but confounding factors such as differences in surgery time and preoperative preparation contributed in part to this finding. As such, surgical approach cannot be categorized as an independent risk factor for SSIs in small animals until further studies are performed.
Objective—To describe the use of transvesicular percutaneous cystolithotomy for the retrieval of cystic and urethral calculi and to report the outcome in dogs and cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—23 dogs and 4 cats.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, procedure time, stone number, stone location, pre- and postoperative radiographs, procedure-associated complications, and short-term outcome. A ventral midline approach was made into the abdomen over the urinary bladder apex. A screw cannula was inserted at the bladder apex for normograde rigid and flexible cystourethroscopy. All uroliths were removed via a stone basket device and retrograde flushing and suction. Long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery) information was obtained by telephone or e-mail contact with owners.
Results—27 animals with cystic and urethral calculi were included. Median patient weight was 8.3 kg (18.3 lb; range, 1.8 to 42.6 kg [4.0 to 93.7 lb]). Urolith number ranged from 1 to > 35 (median, 7). Urolith size ranged from < 1 to 30 mm (median, 4.5 mm). Fifteen of the 27 animals had a previous cystotomy (range, 1 to 5 procedures). Median procedure time was 66 minutes (range, 50 to 80 minutes). All patients were discharged within 24 hours. No postoperative complications were reported at the time of suture removal. At the time of long-term follow-up, the 22 clients that could be contacted were satisfied with the procedure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transvesicular percutaneous cystolithotomy may decrease the need for urethrotomy, serial transurethral endoscopic procedures, and abdominal insufflation associated with other minimally invasive interventions currently available. This procedure also provided excellent visualization for bladder and urethral luminal inspection.
Case Description—A 9-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was examined because of hypertension that persisted after resolution of the patient's hyperthyroidism. Bilateral hypertensive retinopathy, a systolic heart murmur, left ventricular hypertrophy, and tachycardia were present.
Clinical Findings—Biochemical analysis revealed mild hypokalemia, normonatremia, high serum creatine kinase activity, high serum aldosterone concentration, and low plasma renin activity consistent with hyperaldosteronism. Hypercalcemia with an associated high serum parathyroid hormone concentration and an exaggerated low-dose dexamethasone suppression test result were consistent with concurrent hyperparathyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism, respectively. Ultrasonographic examination revealed a markedly enlarged left adrenal gland, an abnormally small right adrenal gland, and 2 nodules in the right thyroid and parathyroid glands.
Treatment and Outcome—Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed concurrently with right thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. Histologic evaluation revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma, thyroid adenoma, and parathyroid adenoma. The cat recovered from surgery without complications. The hypercalcemia and hypertension resolved after surgery. Follow-up echocardiography revealed improvement in the left ventricular hypertrophy. Ultrasonographic examinations performed up to 26 months after adrenalectomy showed no evidence of regrowth of the adrenal mass. The patient survived for 44 months after adrenalectomy with no signs of recurrent hyperaldosteronism or hyperadrenocorticism.
Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopic adrenalectomy may be a plausible method for the treatment of unilateral functional adrenal neoplasia in feline patients when diagnostic imaging has ruled out intravascular invasion and metastatic disease. In addition, in a feline patient with hyperthyroidism and hypertension, other endocrine glands should be investigated.
OBJECTIVE To compare outcomes for laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOVE) and laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy (LapOVH) in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 278 female dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records of female dogs that underwent laparoscopic sterilization between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed. History, signalment, results of physical examination, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, details of the surgical procedure, durations of anesthesia and surgery, intraoperative and immediate postoperative (ie, during hospitalization) complications, and short- (≤ 14 days after surgery) and long-term (> 14 days after surgery) outcomes were recorded. Data for patients undergoing LapOVE versus LapOVH were compared.
RESULTS Intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications were infrequent, and incidence did not differ between groups. Duration of surgery for LapOVE was significantly less than that for LapOVH; however, potential confounders were not assessed. Surgical site infection was identified in 3 of 224 (1.3%) dogs. At the time of long-term follow-up, postoperative urinary incontinence was reported in 7 of 125 (5.6%) dogs that underwent LapOVE and 12 of 82 (14.6%) dogs that underwent LapOVH. None of the dogs had reportedly developed estrus or pyometra by the time of final follow-up. Overall, 205 of 207 (99%) owners were satisfied with the surgery, and 196 of 207 (95%) would consider laparoscopic sterilization for their dogs in the future.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that short- and long-term outcomes were similar for female dogs undergoing sterilization by means of LapOVE or LapOVH; however, surgery time may have been shorter for dogs that underwent LapOVE. Most owners were satisfied with the outcome of laparoscopic sterilization.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 17-month-old sexually intact male Vizsla and a 2-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog were examined because of suspected intrathoracic grass awn migration.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Thoracic CT revealed focal areas of pulmonary infiltration in the right caudal lung lobe in one dog and in the left caudal lung lobe in the other. In 1 patient, bronchoscopy revealed 2 grass awns in the bronchi. Results of thoracic radiography and bronchoscopy were unremarkable in the second patient; however, a grass awn was recovered from the tonsillar crypt during oropharyngeal examination.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME In both dogs, grass awns were successfully retrieved from the pleural cavity by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery during 1-lung ventilation. In one patient, a grass awn was recovered bronchoscopically from the left caudal lung lobe bronchus and another was visualized distally in an accessory lung lobe bronchus but could not be retrieved. This dog underwent accessory lung lobectomy. The second dog underwent left caudal lung lobectomy. Both patients recovered uneventfully from surgery, were discharged from the hospital, and had no apparent recurrence of clinical signs at telephone follow-up 31 months and 18 months after surgery.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE With careful case selection, successful management of intrathoracic grass awn migration in dogs can be achieved by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery. Comprehensive preoperative evaluation including both computed tomography and bronchoscopy is suggested. Further investigation is necessary to evaluate whether treatment of this condition with video-assisted thoracic surgery is as effective as with traditional open thoracotomy.
Objective—To describe a technique and evaluate the outcome of thoracoscopic thoracic duct ligation (TDL) and subphrenic pericardiectomy (SPP) for treatment of idiopathic chylothorax (IC) in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—6 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs with a diagnosis of IC that were subsequently treated by thoracoscopic TDL and SPP and that had not undergone previous surgical treatment were reviewed. Thoracoscopic TDL was performed via a 3-portal technique with the patient in lateral recumbency. Subphrenic pericardiectomy was subsequently performed via a 3-portal technique with the patient in dorsal recumbency. If visualization during SPP was suboptimal, 1-lung ventilation was used to ensure that pericardial resection was close to the phrenic nerves bilaterally but without risk of iatrogenic nerve injury.
Results—All TDL and SPP procedures were completed successfully in a median surgical time of 177 minutes (range, 135 to 210 minutes). All 6 dogs showed resolution of clinical signs of chylothorax with no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 39 months (range, 19 to 60 months). Final postoperative thoracic radiographic evaluation was performed at a median of 14.5 months (range, 7 to 25 months). Complete resolution of pleural effusion occurred in all but 1 dog. In 1 dog, a small volume of pleural effusion was persistent at a 7-month postoperative radiographic follow-up but was not associated with clinical signs and did not require thoracocentesis at any time during the dog's 25-month follow-up period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—From this limited series of patients, results suggested that a minimally invasive TDL-SPP combined surgical technique for management of IC in dogs may be associated with a similarly successful outcome as has been reported for open surgical TDL-SPP.