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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Results of total hip arthroplasty in 84 dogs (96 hips) were evaluated. Eight (9.5%) of the 84 dogs developed 1 or more complications after total hip arthroplasty. Complications resolved or were corrected in 4 of the dogs; all 4 ultimately achieved good or excellent hip function. Complications necessitated removal of the prosthesis in the other 4 dogs; 3 ultimately achieved fair hip junction and 1 had only poor hip junction. Therefore, after resolution of complications, 96% of the hips had good or excellent function. Force plate analysis was performed on 6 dogs with excellent hip function; peak vertical force for the limb that had been operated on was greater than or equal to peak vertical force for the contralateral limb. Radiographically, a radiolucent zone was visible around the acetabular component in 89% of the hips and around the femoral component in 26%. The radiolucent zone around the acetabular and femoral components widened in 14% (6 of 43) and 27% (3 of 11), respectively, of the hips with adequate radiographic follow-up. Aseptic loosening of the acetabular component developed in 3 (3%) of 96 hips; one was successfully revised. Aseptic loosening of the femoral component was not apparent in any of the dogs in this study. Other complications included femoral fracture (n = 3), neurapraxia (3), luxation (1), and unexplained lameness that required implant removal (1). None of the dogs had evidence of wound infection.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate anatomy of the stifle in llamas and determine outcome of llamas that underwent surgery for repair of patellar luxation.

Design

Anatomic and retrospective study.

Animals

6 llamas with unilateral patellar luxation and 1 llama with bilateral luxations.

Procedure

6 stifles from llama cadavers were dissected to determine anatomy. Medical records were reviewed to identify history, procedure, outcome, and complications of llamas that underwent surgery.

Results

6 llamas had lateral patellar luxation (including the llama with bilateral luxations), and 1 had medial patellar luxation. Six llamas had a history of trauma before onset of clinical signs. Two llamas underwent tibial tuberosity transposition, but luxation recurred in both and 1 had problems with breakage of implants. The other 5 llamas underwent imbrication and release procedures; however, luxation recurred in 4 of the 5. Surgery was repeated in 2 llamas, with successful outcomes.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that imbrication and release procedures may be useful for correction of patellar luxation in llamas without other bony abnormalities. However, long (20 cm) imbrication and release incisions are needed for a successful outcome. Use of a sling after surgery, to allow a gradual return to weight bearing and exercise, may also be important. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:860-865)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Data from 10,769 dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (ccl) were compared with data from a control population of 591,548 dogs to determine whether age, breed, gender, or body weight was associated with prevalence of ccl rupture. Prevalence of ccl rupture increased as dogs became older, with peak prevalence in dogs 7 to 10 years old. Among breeds represented by > 1,000 individuals, Rottweilers, Newfoundlands, and Staffordshire Terriers had the highest prevalence of ccl rupture, whereas Dachshunds, Basset Hounds, and Old English Sheepdogs had the lowest. Neutered dogs, whether male or female, had a higher prevalence of ccl rupture than did sexually intact dogs. The dog's age at the time of ovariohysterectomy was not associated with prevalence of ccl rupture. Dogs weighing > 22 kg had a higher prevalence of ccl rupture, compared with dogs weighing < 22 kg, and tended to rupture their ccl at a younger age.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To test whether femoral ostectomy level, subtrochanteric bone mass removal, and stem-size selection significantly affect stem positioning in canine total hip replacement, and to determine ability of the femoral stem component to restore geometry of the normal femoral head and neck.

Sample Population

Femurs from 8 adult mixed-breed canine cadavers.

Procedure

Femurs were systematically prepared, using 8 combinations of 3 surgical preparation techniques that included level of ostectomy (cervical isthmus vs lesser trochanter), subtrochanteric bone block removal, and femoral stem size (recommended, undersized). Computer-aided analysis of specimen photographs was used to evaluate femoral head offset and position and variability of femoral stem positioning for each of the preparation combinations.

Results

Original femoral head offset and position were reconstructed to within a mean of 0.052 and 0.031 cm, respectively, using an undersized femoral stem after ostectomy at the level of the lesser trochanter. Implantation of an undersized femoral stem after subtrochanteric bone block removal improved ability to centralize the distal tip of the implant and reduce the angle between the femoral diaphyseal and implant axes. Ostectomy at the level of the cervical isthmus tended to force femoral implants into a varus position, and ostectomy at the level of the lesser trochanter tended to force implants into a valgus position.

Conclusions

Geometry of normal canine femurs was most closely reconstructed by implantation of an undersized femoral component after ostectomy at the level of the lesser trochanter. Implantation of an undersized femoral component after subtrochanteric bone block removal resulted in the best alignment and centralization of the stem. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1071–1079)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen directly influences canine chondrocyte metabolism.

Animals

Cartilage from the femoral heads of 13 dogs undergoing total hip replacement.

Procedure

Rates of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis and degradation, protein synthesis, cell viability, and prostaglandin release were determined in canine expiant cartilage or monolayer canine chondrocyte cultures in the presence of 0 to 100 µg of carprofen/ml. Rate of GAG synthesis was assessed as incorporation of [35S]sulfate into cartilage matrix during a 3-hour pulse label. Degradation of cartilage GAG was assessed as rate of release of [35S]sulfate from prelabeled expiant cultures. Rates of total protein synthesis were assessed as incorporation of [35S]methionine into trichloracetic acid precipitable material during a 3-hour pulse label. Radiolabeled chondrocyte proteins were separated by Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by fluorography. Rates of prostaglandin E2 release were assessed by radioimmunoassay.

Results

Carprofen stimulated a significant increase in the rate of GAG synthesis at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/ml, with no change in total protein synthesis, pattern of new protein synthesis, or cell viability. At concentration ≥ 20 µg/ml, inhibition of GAG synthesis and total protein synthesis was observed. There was no significant change in rate of release of GAG from cartilage explants, but potent inhibition of prostaglandin release was observed.

Conclusions

Carprofen has a direct influence on chondrocyte activity, resulting in changes in rate of production of cartilage matrix.

Clinical Relevance

In determining the optimal therapeutic dose of carprofen for arthritic conditions in dogs, it is important to consider potential influences on cartilage, as well as anti-inflammatory actions. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:286–292)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether histopathologic changes are detectable in grossly normal medial menisci from dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL).

Design—Case series.

Sample Population—40 medial menisci from dogs with rupture of the CCL and 20 medial menisci from control dogs without stifle joint disease.

Procedure—Data evaluated included age, duration of clinical signs, and whether rupture of the CCL was complete or incomplete. Three groups (n = 20/group) were also compared on the basis of 5 histologic criteria; group-1 menisci appeared grossly normal and were obtained from dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the CCL, group-2 menisci were grossly abnormal and were also obtained from dogs with naturally occurring CCL ruptures, and group-3 menisci were collected at postmortem from dogs without stifle joint disease that were of similar age and weight as dogs in groups 1 and 2.

Results—Group-2 menisci were significantly different from group-1 and -3 menisci in all histologic criteria. Group-1 menisci were significantly different from control menisci in only 1 of the 5 histologic criteria (cartilage differentiation). Dogs that were ≥ 3 years old had significantly more surface cellularity than did dogs that were < 3 years old. A significant difference was not detected between groups 1 and 2 with regard to completeness of rupture.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Histologic changes in meniscal cartilage correlate with gross appearance of the cartilage at time of surgery for rupture of the CCL. On the basis of minimal histologic changes, routine removal of grossly normal menisci does not appear to be warranted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1281–1284)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effect of surgical technique and use of a rigid centralizing device on stem positioning and geometric reconstruction in the sagittal plane during total hip replacement in dogs.

Sample Population

Bilateral femurs from 8 adult mixed-breed canine cadavers.

Procedure

Femurs were prepared for femoral stem implantation, using 4 variations in technique. Proximal femoral reconstruction and femoral stem positioning were evaluated on radiographs.

Results

Implants evaluated in this study accurately reconstructed displacement of the femoral head of the intact canine femur in the sagittal plane. Centralization of the distal aspect of the stem was optimized by use of an undersized femoral stem. Ostectomy at the level of the lesser trochanter resulted in the smallest diaphysis-to-implant angle. Anteversion and retroversion of implants significantly decreased the distance between the distal tip of the implant and the adjacent cortex, compared with normoversion. The centralizing device significantly increased the minimum distance between the distal tip of the implant and adjacent cortex but did not improve the odds of actually centralizing the tip of the implant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Malpositioning of implants in the sagittal plane may be minimized through ostectomy at the lesser trochanter and use of an undersized implant positioned in normoversion. Use of a polymethylmethacrylate centralizing device will help eliminate contact between the implant tip and adjacent cortex. Implantation of an undersized femoral component, avoidance of substantial anteversion or retroversion, and use of a rigid centralizing device are recommended when using the prosthesis described-for total hip replacement of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1126–1135)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Seventy dogs were included in a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial to test the efficacy of carprofen (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h) for relief of clinical signs associated with osteoarthritis. Thirty-six dogs received carprofen, and 34 received a placebo. Response of the dogs was evaluated by comparing results of force plate examination and a graded lameness examination performed before and immediately after 2 weeks of treatment, and by obtaining a subjective assessment of the dog's posttreatment condition from owners and participating veterinarians. A physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, and fecal occult blood test were performed before and after treatment to monitor safety. For force plate evaluation, the odds ratio was 3.3, meaning that a dog treated with carprofen was 3.3 times more likely to have a positive response than was a dog treated with the placebo. For evaluation by a veterinarian, the odds ratio was 3.5, and for owner evaluation, the odds ratio was 4.2. Institution where dogs were treated did not have a significant effect on results. A variety of reactions that may have been related to the medication (placebo or carprofen) were recorded; however, none were considered serious. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity was high in 3 dogs (2 that received placebo and 1 that received carprofen) at the conclusion of treatment; none of the 3 dogs were clinically ill. Ten dogs © that received placebo and 5 that received carprofen) had negative pretreatment and positive posttreatment fecal occult blood test results.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association