Objective—To determine deployment logistics of New York Police Department (NYPD) working dogs that assisted in relief efforts at the World Trade Center (WTC) site following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack; establish types and rates of related acute injuries and illnesses; identify environmental toxin exposures; and determine long-term (ie, 5-year) health effects of deployment.
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—27 working dogs.
Procedures—Deployment logistics for the period from September 11, 2001, through May 30, 2002, were determined, and acute health disorders were identified by means of physical examination; a questionnaire; interviews with dog handlers; and toxicologic (blood and hair samples), clinicopathologic, microbiologic (nasal swab specimens submitted for Bacillus anthracis culture), and radiographic methods. Long-term health surveillance ended September 21, 2006.
Results—Dogs worked a total of 1,428 days (15,148 hours) at the site. Seventeen of the 27 (62.9%) dogs had health disorders during the first week. Specific conditions included fatigue (incidence rate [events/1,000 active deployment hours], 13.1), conjunctival irritation (13.1), respiratory tract problems (12.4), decreased appetite (10.8), dehydration (10), and cuts (9.3). Only minor hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities were identified. Bacterial culture of nasal swab specimens did not yield B anthracis. Only mild and infrequent health conditions were identified during the 5-year follow-up period. None of the dogs were identified as having chronic respiratory tract disease. Six dogs died of various causes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that acute injuries and illnesses were common among NYPD working dogs deployed to the WTC disaster site, but that longterm health complications were minimal.
OBJECTIVE To identify patterns of referral to US small animal rehabilitation facilities, document referring veterinarians’ perceptions of rehabilitation services, and examine factors that encouraged and impeded referral of veterinary patients to rehabilitation facilities.
DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.
SAMPLE 461 completed surveys.
PROCEDURES Referral lists were obtained from 9 US rehabilitation facilities, and surveys were emailed or mailed to 2, 738 veterinarians whose names appeared on those lists. Data obtained from respondents were used to generate descriptive statistics and perform χ2 tests to determine patterns for referral of patients to rehabilitation facilities.
RESULTS 461 surveys were completed and returned, resulting in a response rate of 16.8%. The margin of error was < 5% for all responses. Most respondents (324/461 [70.3%]) had referred patients for postoperative rehabilitation therapy. Respondents ranked neurologic disorder as the condition they would most likely consider for referral for future rehabilitation therapy. The most frequently cited reason for not referring a patient for rehabilitation therapy was perceived cost (251/461 [54.4%]) followed by distance to a rehabilitation facility (135/461 [29.3%]). Specialists were more likely than general practitioners to refer patients for rehabilitation therapy. The majority (403/461 [87.4%]) of respondents felt that continuing education in the field of veterinary rehabilitation was lacking.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated a need for continuing education in small animal rehabilitation for veterinarians. Improved knowledge of rehabilitation therapy will enable veterinarians to better understand and more specifically communicate indications and benefits for pets receiving this treatment modality.
OBJECTIVE To compare improvements in values for periodontal disease indices in dogs following treatment with closed root planing (CRP) alone, CRP with concurrent 8.5% doxycycline hyclate gel application, and CRP with concurrent 2% clindamycin hydrochloride reverse-polymer hydrogel application.
ANIMALS 34 client-owned dogs with periodontal pockets measuring 3.5 to 5.5 mm deep.
PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 treatments: CRP alone (n = 10) or CRP plus 8.5% doxycycline hyclate (12) or 2% clindamycin hydrochloride (12) gel applied within the periodontal pockets. Indices of periodontal disease severity were recorded before and 12 weeks after treatment, and outcomes were compared among treatment groups.
RESULTS Except for gingivitis index, no significant differences were identified among the 3 treatment groups in the amount of improvement observed in values for periodontal disease indices following treatment. A minor but clinically unimportant improvement in mean gingivitis index values was identified for dogs treated with CRP plus doxycycline gel, which differed significantly from improvements in the other 2 groups. Teeth that were initially more severely affected (pocket depths, 5.0 to 5.5 mm) had the greatest amount of improvement, whereas teeth with only mildly high initial pocket depths (3.5 to 4.0 mm) had less improvement.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, addition of doxycycline or clindamycin gel application to CRP for the treatment of periodontal disease in dogs yielded no clinically relevant benefit over CRP during the 12-week follow-up period.
Objective—To determine whether plasma concentrations
of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are increased
in cats with congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary
Animals—26 adult cats with CHF and cardiomyopathy
and 9 healthy control cats.
Procedure—Plasma concentrations of TNF-α were
measured in cats with CHF and cardiomyopathy.
Tumor necrosis factor-α was measured by quantifying
cytotoxic effects of TNF-α on L929 murine fibrosarcoma
Results—Concentrations of TNF-α were increased
(0.13 to 3.6 U/ml) in 10 of 26 cats with CHF but were
undetectable in the other 16 cats with CHF and all
control cats. In 20 of 26 cats with CHF, right-sided
heart failure (RHF) was evident; TNF-α concentrations
were increased in 9 of these 20 cats. The remaining 6
cats had left-sided heart failure (LHF); TNF-α concentrations
were increased in only 1 of these cats. Age of
cats with LHF (mean ± SD, 12.1 ± 6.2 years) was not
significantly different from age of the cohort with RHF
(10.5 ± 5.2 years). Body weight of cats with increased
TNFα concentrations (5.4 ± 1.8 kg) was not significantly
different from body weight of cats with CHF
that did not have measurable concentrations of TNF-α
(4.7 ± 1.6 kg).
Conclusionss and Clinical Relevance—Concentrations
of TNF-α were increased in many cats with
CHF. Cats with RHF were most likely to have
increased TNF-α concentrations. Increased plasma
concentrations of TNF-α in cats with CHF may offer
insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of
heart failure and provide targets for therapeutic interventions.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:640–642)
Objective—To compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability following oral and IV administration of bisoprolol, a second-generation β1-adrenoceptor–selective blocking agent, with those of carvedilol, a third-generation β1/β2 and α1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, in dogs.
Animals—12 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedures—A prospective, parallel group study was performed. The dogs were allocated to 1 of 2 groups (6 dogs/group) and were administered orally a 1 mg/kg dose of either bisoprolol or carvedilol. Following a 1-week washout period, each cohort received a 1 mg/kg dose of the same drug IV. Blood samples were collected before and after drug administration, and serum concentrations, pharmacokinetic variables, and bioavailability for each agent were assessed.
Results—After oral administration of bisoprolol, the geometric mean value of the area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf) was 2,195 μg/L (coefficient of variation [CV], 15%). After IV administration of bisoprolol, the dose-normalized geometric mean AUCinf was 2,402 μg/L (CV, 19%). Oral bioavailability of bisoprolol was 91.4%. After oral administration of carvedilol, the geometric mean AUCinf was 70 μg/L (CV, 81%). After IV administration of carvedilol, the geometric mean AUCinf was 491 μg/L (CV, 23%). Oral bioavailability of carvedilol was 14.3%. Total body clearance was low (0.42 L/h/kg) for bisoprolol and high (2.0 L/h/kg) for carvedilol.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After oral administration, carvedilol underwent extensive first-pass metabolism and had limited bioavailability; bisoprolol had less first-pass effect and higher bioavailability. Collectively, these differences suggested that, in dogs, bisoprolol has less interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, compared with carvedilol.
Objective—To determine whether serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic (NT-proBNP) concentration could be used to identify cardiac disease in dogs and to assess disease severity in affected dogs.
Animals—119 dogs with mitral valve disease, 18 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 40 healthy control dogs.
Procedures—Serum NT-proBNP concentration was measured with an ELISA validated for use in dogs. Results of physical examination, thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and serum biochemical analyses were recorded for dogs with cardiac disease.
Results—Serum NT-proBNP concentration was significantly higher in dogs with cardiac disease than in control dogs, and a serum NT-proBNP concentration > 445 pmol/L could be used to discriminate dogs with cardiac disease from control dogs with a sensitivity of 83.2% and specificity of 90.0%. In dogs with cardiac disease, serum NT-proBNP concentration was correlated with heart rate, respiratory rate, echocardiographic heart size, and renal function. For dogs with cardiac disease, serum NT-proBNP concentration could be used to discriminate dogs with and without radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly and dogs with and without congestive heart failure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that serum NT-proBNP concentration may be a useful adjunct clinical test for diagnosing cardiac disease in dogs and assessing the severity of disease in dogs with cardiac disease.
Objective—To evaluate pituitary-adrenal function in a
population of critically ill dogs by measuring serial
plasma concentrations of basal cortisol, ACTH-stimulated
cortisol, and endogenous ACTH.
Animals—20 critically ill dogs admitted to an intensive
care unit (ICU).
Procedure—Basal plasma cortisol, ACTH-stimulated
cortisol, and endogenous ACTH concentrations were
measured for each dog within 24 hours of admission
and daily until death, euthanasia, or discharge from
the ICU. Established reference ranges for healthy
dogs were used for comparison. Survival prediction
index (SPI) scores were calculated for each dog within
24 hours of admission.
Results—No significant difference was found
between initial concentrations of basal cortisol,
ACTH-stimulated cortisol, and endogenous ACTH in
13 dogs that survived and those in 7 dogs that died.
High initial basal endogenous ACTH concentrations
were correlated with subsequent high values. Low
basal ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations were
predictive of higher subsequent values. All basal and
ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations were within
or above the reference range in the 52 plasma samples
collected from the 20 dogs during hospitalization.
The SPI scores correlated with outcome (ie, alive or
dead), but none of the plasma hormone concentrations
correlated with SPI score or outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
that none of the critically ill dogs in our study
population developed adrenal insufficiency during
hospitalization in the ICU. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine the effect of long-term
administration of enalapril on renal function in dogs
with severe, compensated mitral regurgitation.
Design—Randomized controlled trial.
Animals—139 dogs with mitral regurgitation but
without overt signs of heart failure.
Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to be
treated with enalapril (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], PO,
q 24 h) or placebo, and serum creatinine and urea
nitrogen concentrations were measured at regular
intervals for up to 26 months.
Results—Adequate information on renal function
was obtained from 132 dogs; follow-up time ranged
from 0.5 to 26 months (median, 12 months). Mean
serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations
were not significantly different between dogs receiving
enalapril and dogs receiving the placebo at any
time, nor were concentrations significantly different
from baseline concentrations. Proportions of dogs
that developed azotemia or that had a ≥ 35% increase
in serum creatinine or urea nitrogen concentration
were also not significantly different between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that administration of enalapril for up to 2 years
did not have any demonstrable adverse effects on
renal function in dogs with severe, compensated
mitral regurgitation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: