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Approximately 45 Holstein cows that were Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-positive on the basis of fecal culture results were maintained at any one time in a 210-cow dairy herd. Farm management participated in the New York State Paratuberculosis Eradication Program. Paratuberculosis-positive cows were grouped separately from paratuberculosis-negative cows, but they were otherwise managed identically. During a 1-year study, 180 paratuberculosisnegative cows and 113 clinically normal paratuberculosis-positive cows were identified. Quarter milk samples (n = 6,100) were aseptically collected for microbiologie culture of mastitis pathogens from paratuberculosis-negative cows, and 3,129 quarter samples were obtained from paratuberculosis-positive cows. Dairy Herd Improvement Association (dhia) records were used to monitor milk somatic cell count linear scores, mature equivalent milk production, new mastitis infections, and chronic mastitis infections. For second-lactation cows greater than 100 days in milk production, and increasing with age beyond that point, paratuberculosis-positive cows had lower mature equivalent milk production than did negative herdmates. Rates of new and chronic mastitis infections, as measured by dhia linear scores were significantly (P < 0.05, P = 0.05, respectively) lower in cows with nonclinical paratuberculosis. Infected cows were culled from the herd at a faster rate than were paratuberculosis-negative herdmates. Therefore, paratuberculosis was associated with financial loss attributable to reduced milk production and increased culling of infected cows.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To determine whether particular dairy management practices and herd characteristics were associated with somatic cell count (See) of bulk tank milk.


Analysis of records.

Sample Population—

Milk samples collected from 59,435 cows housed in 843 dairy herds between March 1992 and June 1994.


Results of bacterial culture of milk samples and data on farm housing, sanitation, milking system, and management were collected. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine sources of variation in bulk tank milk see among herds.


Prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis was associated with bulk tank milk SCC. In herds free of S agalactiae mastitis, prevalence of S aureus and Corynebacterium bovis mastitis were important. For herds without S agalactiae mastitis, use of sawdust bedding was associated with a decrease in SCC and a dirty loose housing area was associated with an increase. Increased milk production, repeated mastitis control visits, and use of particular predip compounds were significantly associated with reduced SCC in all herds, regardless of whether any cows in the herd had S agalactiae mastitis, In herds with S agalactiae mastitis, use of iodine (certain concentrations), chlorhexidine, peroxide, or sodium chlorite-lactic acid as a predip was associated with a decrease in SCC. Only use of sodium chlorite-lactic acid predip was significantly associated with a decrease in SCC in herds without S agalactiae mastitis.

Clinical Implications—

Important factors associated with bulk tank milk SCC were prevalence of S agalactiae and S aureus mastitis. careful application of particular predip compounds. avoiding a dirty loose housing area, and use of a service to regularly monitor prevalence of mastitis in the herd: (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1466-1469)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


A dairy farm located in central New York was visited because of complaints of electrical shock in the farmhouse shower and the milk house sink. As much as 2 volts AC of potential difference was measured between the waterline and the cow platform (cow-contact voltage). Voltage was coming from the primary neutral wire. The farm's electrical service was modified so that the farmstead could be connected or disconnected from the primary neutral wire at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks. When connected to the primary neutral wire, voltage between waterline and floor ranged between 0 and 1.8 volts, producing estimated current flow through cows of 3.6 to 4.9 mA; when disconnected from primary neutral wire, voltage between waterline and floor was < 0.1 volt. There was no difference in mean milk production, bulk tank milk somatic cell count, or water consumption among periods when cows were exposed or unexposed to voltage. Despite statistical nonsignificance, the values for somatic cell count were lower and water consumption was higher when cows were exposed to voltage than when they were not.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate efficacy of florfenicol treatment for bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, nonagalactiae streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp, and others.


Double blind study with cases randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups.

Sample Population

861 cows/10 commercial dairy farms.


Experimental (750 mg of florfenicol) or control (200 mg of cloxacillin) treatment was administered by intramammary infusion every 12 hours for 3 treatments to all cases. Treatments were randomly assigned, identified only by numerical labels. To retain blinding, the longer withdrawal time was adhered to for all cases. Cases remained in the study only if there was no other treatment. Quarter samples were recultured 14, 21, and 28 days later. If all samples after day 1 were culture negative, the case was defined as cured. If only 1 of the follow-up results was positive, the case was considered cured if the day-28 somatic cell count was < 300,000/ml. Failure of treatment was defined as 2 or more culture-positive follow-up samples.


Florfenicol and cloxacillin did not differ significantly in efficacy versus clinical (n = 85) or subclinical (n = 71) bovine mastitis, or for any etiologic agent (χ2). Overall cure rates for mastitis were: Str agalactiae, 5 of 8 (63%); Sta aureus, 5 of 54 (9%); Streptococcus sp, 16 of 35 (46%); Staphylococcus sp, 7 of 33 (21 %); E coli, 5 of 11 (46%); Klebsiella sp, 3 of 6 (50%); others, 1 of 9 (11%); and all cases, 42 of 156 (27%).


Florfenicol did not offer any advantage over cloxacillin in efficacy against bovine mastitis. Overall cure rates were low. As with most mastitis treatment regimens, poor efficacy may be partly attributable to the short duration of treatment. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:526–528)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research