Objective—To evaluate expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 in the cornea, eyelid, and third eyelid of healthy horses and those affected with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by use of immunohistochemical techniques.
Animals—15 horses with SCC involving ocular tissues and 5 unaffected control horses.
Procedures—SCC-affected tissues were obtained from the cornea (n = 5 horses), eyelid (5), and third eyelid (5). Site-matched control tissues were obtained from 5 horses unaffected with SCC. Tissue sections of affected and control cornea, eyelid, and third eyelid were stained immunohistochemically for COX-1 and COX-2 via standard techniques. Stain uptake was quantified by use of computer-assisted image analysis of digital photomicrographs.
Results—Immunoreactivity for both COX-1 and COX-2 was significantly greater in equine corneas with SCC than in control corneas. No significant differences in COX-1 or COX-2 immunoreactivity were detected in eyelid and third-eyelid SCC, compared with site-matched control tissues.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Immunoreactivity for COX-1 and COX-2 is high in equine corneal SCC, possibly indicating that COX plays a role in oncogenesis or progression of this tumor type at this site. Pharmacologic inhibition of COX may represent a useful adjunctive treatment for corneal SCC in horses.
Objective—To determine whether increased gene expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4) in laminae of horses with starch gruel–induced laminitis was accompanied by increased enzyme activity and substrate degradation.
Sample—Laminae from the forelimb hooves of 8 healthy horses and 17 horses with starch gruel–induced laminitis (6 at onset of fever, 6 at onset of Obel grade 1 lameness, and 5 at onset of Obel grade 3 lameness).
Procedures—Gene expression was determined by use of cDNA and real-time quantitative PCR assay. Protein expression and processing were determined via SDS-PAGE and quantitative western blotting. Protein distribution and abundance were determined via quantitative immunofluorescent staining.
Results—ADAMTS-4 gene expression was increased and that of versican decreased in laminitic laminae, compared with expression in healthy laminae. Catalytically active ADAMTS-4 also was increased in the tissue, as were ADAMTS-4–cleavage fragments of versican. Immunofluorescent analyses indicated that versican was depleted from the basal epithelia of laminae of horses at onset of Obel grade 3 lameness, compared with results for healthy laminae, and this was accompanied by regional separation of basal epithelial cells from the basement membrane. Aggrecan gene and protein expression were not significantly affected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Changes in gene and protein expression of ADAMTS-4 and versican in the basal epithelium of laminitic laminae indicated a fundamental change in the physiology of basal epithelial cells. This was accompanied by and may have caused detachment of these cells from the basement membrane.
Objective—To evaluate a continuous glucose monitoring
system (CGMS) for use in dogs, cats, and horses.
Design—Prospective clinical study.
Animals—7 horses, 3 cats, and 4 dogs that were clinically
normal and 1 horse, 2 cats, and 3 dogs with diabetes
Procedure—Interstitial glucose concentrations were
monitored and recorded every 5 minutes by use of a
CGMS. Interstitial glucose concentrations were compared
with whole blood glucose concentrations as
determined by a point-of-care glucose meter.
Interstitial glucose concentrations were also monitored
in 2 clinically normal horses after oral and IV
administration of glucose.
Results—There was a positive correlation between
interstitial and whole blood glucose concentrations
for clinically normal dogs, cats, and horses and those
with diabetes mellitus. Events such as feeding, glucose
or insulin administration, restraint, and transport
to the clinic were recorded by the owner or clinician
and could be identified on the graph and associated
with time of occurrence.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our data indicate
that use of CGMS is valid for dogs, cats, and
horses. This system alleviated the need for multiple
blood samples and the stress associated with
obtaining those samples. Because hospitalization
was not required, information obtained from the
CGMS provided a more accurate assessment of the
animal's glucose concentrations for an extended
period, compared with measurement of blood glucose
concentrations. Use of the CGMS will promote
the diagnostic and research potential of serial glucose
monitoring. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:
Objective—To quantify changes in endothelium-derived factors and relate those changes to various aspects of digital hemodynamics during the prodromal stages of carbohydrate overload (CHO)-induced laminitis in horses.
Animals—20 adult horses without abnormalities of the digit.
Procedures—Digital and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 1-hour intervals (for assessment of endothelin-1 [ET-1] immunoreactivity and measurement of glucose, insulin, and nitric oxide [NO] concentrations) or 4-hour intervals (CBC and platelet-neutrophil aggregate assessment) for 8 hours or 16 hours after induction of CHO-associated laminitis in horses treated with an ET-1 antagonist. Effects of treatment, collection site, and time and the random effects of horse on each variable were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures model. Where treatment and collection site had no significant effect, data were combined.
Results—Compared with baseline values, CHO resulted in changes in several variables, including a significant increase from baseline in digital blood ET-like immunoreactivity at 11 hours; digital blood ET-like immunoreactivity was significantly greater than that in jugular venous blood at 8, 9, 11, and 12 hours. Digital and jugular venous blood concentrations of glucose increased from baseline significantly at 3, 4, and 5 hours; insulin concentration increased significantly at 5 hours; and the number of platelet-neutrophil aggregates increased significantly at 12 hours.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses, concurrent increases in venous blood ET-1 immunoreactivity, insulin and glucose concentrations, and platelet-neutrophil aggregates support a role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CHO-induced laminitis.