To determine the following: (1) whether an irrigation solution that is hyperosmolar (HYPER) relative to synovial fluid decreases tissue extravasation during an arthroscopic protocol when compared to a relatively hypoosmolar solution, (2) the safety of a HYPER solution based on viability of joint tissues following joint irrigation, and (3) if the use of a HYPER solution decreases water content in stifle joint tissue.
8 adult horses.
A prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial was performed to compare lactated Ringer’s solution (LRS; 273 mOsm/L) and a HYPER (600 mOsm/L) irrigation solution for routine medial femorotibial joint (MFTJ) arthroscopy. Primary outcomes included quantification of periarticular fluid retention based on measured changes in defined stifle joint girth and ultrasonographic (US) criteria. Water content of tissue samples was assessed. The viability of articular cartilage was determined using a microscopic fluorescent cell viability staining system.
No significant difference in postprocedural joint swelling was observed between LRS and HYPER treatment groups. Percent increments in femorotibial joint dimensions (mean ± SD) were seen in both treatment groups based on US (LRS, 83.9 ± 84.6%; HYPER, 131.2 ± 144.9%) and caliper measurements (LRS 5.5 ± 4.3%; HYPER 7.5 ± 5.8%) (P ≤ .05). Chondrocyte viability and tissue water content were maintained in both treatment groups, and differences were not statistically significant.
Doubling the osmolarity of an irrigation solution used routinely for arthroscopy does not result in detrimental effects on chondrocyte viability or tissue water content. However, use of a relatively HYPER irrigation solution did not attenuate procedural tissue swelling of the equine stifle joint.
Objective—To evaluate expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 in the cornea, eyelid, and third eyelid of healthy horses and those affected with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by use of immunohistochemical techniques.
Animals—15 horses with SCC involving ocular tissues and 5 unaffected control horses.
Procedures—SCC-affected tissues were obtained from the cornea (n = 5 horses), eyelid (5), and third eyelid (5). Site-matched control tissues were obtained from 5 horses unaffected with SCC. Tissue sections of affected and control cornea, eyelid, and third eyelid were stained immunohistochemically for COX-1 and COX-2 via standard techniques. Stain uptake was quantified by use of computer-assisted image analysis of digital photomicrographs.
Results—Immunoreactivity for both COX-1 and COX-2 was significantly greater in equine corneas with SCC than in control corneas. No significant differences in COX-1 or COX-2 immunoreactivity were detected in eyelid and third-eyelid SCC, compared with site-matched control tissues.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Immunoreactivity for COX-1 and COX-2 is high in equine corneal SCC, possibly indicating that COX plays a role in oncogenesis or progression of this tumor type at this site. Pharmacologic inhibition of COX may represent a useful adjunctive treatment for corneal SCC in horses.
Objective—To determine the expression and distribution of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4), its substrates aggrecan and versican, and their binding partner hyaluronan in laminae of healthy horses.
Sample—Laminae from the forelimb hooves of 8 healthy horses.
Procedures—Real-time quantitative PCR assay was used for gene expression analysis. Hyaluronidase, chondroitinase, and keratanase digestion of lamina extracts combined with SDS-PAGE and western blotting were used for protein and proteoglycan analysis. Immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections were used for protein and hyaluronan localization.
Results—Genes encoding ADAMTS-4, aggrecan, versican, and hyaluronan synthase II were expressed in laminae. The ADAMTS-4 was predominantly evident as a 51-kDa protein bearing a catalytic site neoepitope indicative of active enzyme and in situ activity, which was confirmed by the presence of aggrecan and versican fragments bearing ADAMTS-4 cleavage neoepitopes in laminar protein extracts. Aggrecan, versican, and hyaluronan were localized to basal epithelial cells within the secondary epidermal laminae. The ADAMTS-4 localized to these cells but was also present in some cells in the dermal laminae.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Within digital laminae, versican exclusively and aggrecan primarily localized within basal epithelial cells and both were constitutively cleaved by ADAMTS-4, which therefore contributed to their turnover. On the basis of known properties of these proteoglycans, it is possible that they can protect the basal epithelial cells of horses from biomechanical and concussive stress.
Objective—To determine whether increased gene expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4 (ADAMTS-4) in laminae of horses with starch gruel–induced laminitis was accompanied by increased enzyme activity and substrate degradation.
Sample—Laminae from the forelimb hooves of 8 healthy horses and 17 horses with starch gruel–induced laminitis (6 at onset of fever, 6 at onset of Obel grade 1 lameness, and 5 at onset of Obel grade 3 lameness).
Procedures—Gene expression was determined by use of cDNA and real-time quantitative PCR assay. Protein expression and processing were determined via SDS-PAGE and quantitative western blotting. Protein distribution and abundance were determined via quantitative immunofluorescent staining.
Results—ADAMTS-4 gene expression was increased and that of versican decreased in laminitic laminae, compared with expression in healthy laminae. Catalytically active ADAMTS-4 also was increased in the tissue, as were ADAMTS-4–cleavage fragments of versican. Immunofluorescent analyses indicated that versican was depleted from the basal epithelia of laminae of horses at onset of Obel grade 3 lameness, compared with results for healthy laminae, and this was accompanied by regional separation of basal epithelial cells from the basement membrane. Aggrecan gene and protein expression were not significantly affected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Changes in gene and protein expression of ADAMTS-4 and versican in the basal epithelium of laminitic laminae indicated a fundamental change in the physiology of basal epithelial cells. This was accompanied by and may have caused detachment of these cells from the basement membrane.
Objective—To evaluate a continuous glucose monitoring
system (CGMS) for use in dogs, cats, and horses.
Design—Prospective clinical study.
Animals—7 horses, 3 cats, and 4 dogs that were clinically
normal and 1 horse, 2 cats, and 3 dogs with diabetes
Procedure—Interstitial glucose concentrations were
monitored and recorded every 5 minutes by use of a
CGMS. Interstitial glucose concentrations were compared
with whole blood glucose concentrations as
determined by a point-of-care glucose meter.
Interstitial glucose concentrations were also monitored
in 2 clinically normal horses after oral and IV
administration of glucose.
Results—There was a positive correlation between
interstitial and whole blood glucose concentrations
for clinically normal dogs, cats, and horses and those
with diabetes mellitus. Events such as feeding, glucose
or insulin administration, restraint, and transport
to the clinic were recorded by the owner or clinician
and could be identified on the graph and associated
with time of occurrence.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our data indicate
that use of CGMS is valid for dogs, cats, and
horses. This system alleviated the need for multiple
blood samples and the stress associated with
obtaining those samples. Because hospitalization
was not required, information obtained from the
CGMS provided a more accurate assessment of the
animal's glucose concentrations for an extended
period, compared with measurement of blood glucose
concentrations. Use of the CGMS will promote
the diagnostic and research potential of serial glucose
monitoring. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: