Objective—To evaluate the present and future supply
of veterinarians in California, in light of changing
trends in animal ownership.
Sample Population—Human and animal populations,
including populations of veterinarians, throughout
the United States.
Procedures—Data on animal and human populations
were compiled from a number of sources, including
the US Census Bureau, American Veterinary Medical
Association, State of California Department of
Finance, and State of California Veterinary Medical
Board. The distribution of veterinarians in California
was contrasted with other health professionals in
California and with that of veterinarians in other
states. Recent changes in veterinary medical demographics
in California were quantified and used to
develop in-state projections about the supply of veterinarians
for the next 20 years.
Results—Although California is the most populous of
the 50 states, only 7 states had fewer veterinarians
per capita. Furthermore, California ranked next to last
among states in increase of number of veterinarians
between 1990 and 1995. Los Angeles County had the
smallest per-capita number of veterinarians among 9
populous California counties. During that period,
California had a net gain of only 6 veterinarians who
were exclusively or predominantly large-animal or
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—If current
trends continue, the per-capita number of veterinarians
will continue to decrease in California. To maintain
the current ratio of 17.8 veterinarians/100,000 people in
California in the future, we estimate that an additional
50 veterinarians above the currently predicted increase
will be required annually. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1753–1757)
Objective—To compare clinical, microbiologic, and clinicopathologic findings among horses infected with Clostridium difficile that had toxin A in their feces, horses with evidence of C difficile infection that were negative for toxin A in their feces, and horses with diarrhea that were negative for C difficile infection.
Animals—292 horses and foals with diarrhea.
Procedures—Feces were submitted for microbial culture and tested for the C difficile antigen glutamate dehydrogenase and for toxin A with a commercial ELISA.
Results—Horses with toxin A in their feces had higher band neutrophil count, rectal temperature, hospitalization time prior to the onset of diarrhea, and total hospitalization time than did horses without evidence of C difficile infection, and 32 of the 33 (97%) horses with toxin A in their feces had received antimicrobials prior to the onset of diarrhea. Horses with toxin A in their feces had a significantly higher mortality rate than did horses negative for toxin A in their feces. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for detection of C difficile antigen were 93% and 88%, when assay results were compared with results of microbial culture following direct plating, and 66% and 93%, when assay results were compared with results of microbial culture following broth enrichment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided some evidence that horses positive for toxin A had more severe clinical disease than did horses with evidence of C difficile infection that were negative for toxin A and horses with diarrhea without evidence of C difficile infection.
Objective—To quantify incidence of vaccination practices,
postvaccinal reactions, and vaccine site-associated
sarcomas in cats.
Animals—31,671 cats vaccinated in the United
States and Canada by veterinarians with World Wide
Procedure—Veterinarians used secure Web-based
survey forms to report data regarding administered
vaccines, postvaccinal inflammatory reactions, vaccine
site-associated sarcomas, and detailed information
and history on each sarcoma. Data were collected
from Jan 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 2000, allowing a 1- to
3-year follow-up of vaccinated cats.
Results—Participants reported administering 61,747
doses of vaccine to 31,671 cats; postvaccinal inflammatory
reactions developed in 73 cats (11.8 reactions/
10,000 vaccine doses), and qualifying vaccine
site-associated sarcomas developed in 2 cats (0.63
sarcomas/10,000 cats; 0.32 sarcomas/10,000 doses
of all vaccines).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These findings
indicate that the incidence of vaccine site-associated
sarcomas is low and is not increasing.
Thoughtful consideration of the relative risks and benefits
of specific vaccines remains the best means of
reducing the incidence of sarcomas. It is not necessary
to remove postvaccinal granulomas unless
malignant behavior is apparent or they persist > 4
months. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1477–1482)
Objective—To determine reference values, intertest correlations, and test-retest repeatability of Schirmer tear test 1 (STT-1), phenol red thread test (PRTT), tear film breakup time (TFBUT), tear osmolarity, and meibometry in healthy cats.
Animals—135 healthy domestic cats aged 0.5 to 12.8 years.
Procedures—Each test was performed once in 120 cats and repeated in 40. Pearson correlation was used to assess correlation among tests. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were used to evaluate test-retest repeatability.
Results—Median (95% central range) values were 18 mm/min (9 to 34 mm/min) for STT-1, 29 mm/15 s (15 to 37 mm/15 s) for PRTT, 12.4 seconds (9.1 to 17.7 seconds) for TFBUT, 322 mOsm/L (297 to 364 mOsm/L) for osmolarity, and 32 meibometry units (MU; 11 to 114 MU) for peak meibometry value. The STT-1 and PRTT values were positively correlated. Age was weakly associated with TFBUT and osmolarity. Meibometry measurements were higher for strips that contacted the tear film (285 MU) than for those that touched the eyelid margin only (32 MU). All ICCs were < 0.75, and 95% LOA were wide.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tear deficiency should be suspected in cats with STT-1 < 9 mm/min, PRTT < 15 mm/15 s, or TFBUT < 9 to 10 seconds. Generally poor correlation among tests suggested that thorough tear film analysis requires performance of multiple tests in concert. Relatively poor test-retest repeatability should be considered when repeated tests are used to monitor tear film dysfunction and response to treatment.
Objective—To determine prevalence of initial clinical
signs and risk factors for acquired myasthenia gravis
(MG) in cats.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—105 cats from the United States, Canada,
and the United Kingdom with a confirmed diagnosis
of acquired MG and 510 cats with other neuromuscular
disorders, including generalized weakness,
megaesophagus, and dysphagia (control group).
Procedures—Records were retrieved from a database
containing results of serum samples tested for
acetylcholine receptor antibodies. Signalment, including
breed, age, and state or country of origin, month
of onset, and initial clinical signs were obtained. An
acetylcholine receptor antibody titer > 0.3 nmol/L was
diagnostic for acquired MG. Unconditional logistic
regression was used for statistical analysis.
Results—Compared with mixed-breed cats, the
breed with the highest relative risk of acquired MG
was the Abyssinian (including Somali). Significant differences
between sexes were not detected. There
was no compelling evidence for a difference in risk of
developing MG between states or countries. Relative
risk increased after 3 years of age. The most common
clinical signs were generalized weakness without
megaesophagus and weakness associated with a cranial
mediastinal mass. Focal signs, including megaesophagus
and dysphagia without signs of generalized
weakness, were also evident.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A breed predisposition
for acquired MG in Abyssinians (and related
Somalis) was observed. Clinical signs were variable
and included generalized weakness, megaesophagus,
and dysphagia. A cranial mediastinal
mass was commonly associated with MG in cats. ( J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:55–57)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a synthetic feline facial pheromone product would decrease stress scores and upper respiratory tract infection (URI) incidence in shelter-housed cats.
DESIGN Randomized controlled clinical trial.
ANIMALS 336 stray, feral, owner-relinquished, or legally impounded cats at 2 animal shelters in northern California.
PROCEDURES 5 cat holding rooms (3 at shelter A and 2 at shelter B) were used. A diffuser containing either synthetic pheromone or placebo was randomly assigned to each room, and cats were exposed for a 21-day period. Data collected on each cat included signalment, daily stress scores, and daily URI incidence. After 21 days, diffusers were removed for a 7-day washout period. The type of diffuser in each room was switched, and data were collected for another 21 days. Findings were statistically compared between exposure types and other groupings.
RESULTS Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed no significant difference between exposure (pheromone or placebo) and URI incidence. Mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression revealed no significant relationship between exposure and daily stress scores. Three covariates had significant ORs: number of days in holding (OR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.84), owner-relinquished versus stray (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.18 to 8.94), and feral versus adult cat room at shelter A (OR, 11.10; 95% CI, 4.47 to 27.60).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE No evidence was found that the evaluated synthetic feline facial pheromone product had any effect on stress scores or URI incidence in shelter-housed cats. Therefore, other established methods for stress and URI reduction should be used in shelter settings.
Objective—To determine the immediately antecedent cause of secondary glaucoma and the prevalence of secondary glaucoma with anterior uveitis or lens dislocation in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—156 dogs with secondary glaucoma.
Procedures—Cause of glaucoma was determined from records. Breed, age, sex, and neuter status of all dogs with secondary glaucoma were compared with the general hospital population. The prevalence of secondary glaucoma in dogs with a primary diagnosis of lens dislocation or anterior uveitis during the same period was determined.
Results—Secondary glaucoma was diagnosed in 156 of 2,257 (6.9%) dogs examined because of ophthalmic disease and was bilateral in 33 (21.2%) of those dogs. In 31 (94%) bilaterally affected dogs, the antecedent cause was the same in both eyes. Common causes of secondary glaucoma were non-surgical anterior uveitis (44.9%), anterior uveitis associated with prior phacoemulsification (15.8%), and lens dislocation (15.2%). Parson Russell Terriers, Poodles, Boston Terriers, Cocker Spaniels, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, and Australian Cattle Dogs had diagnoses of secondary glaucoma more often than expected, compared with the reference population. Age, sex, neuter status, and laterality were not associated with secondary glaucoma. The prevalence of secondary glaucoma in dogs with lens dislocation or uveitis was 15% or 17%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glaucoma develops secondary to many intraocular diseases, particularly uveitis and lens dislocation. Diagnosis of these diseases should prompt frequent monitoring of intraocular pressure, regardless of signalment.
Objective—To evaluate results of root canal treatment
Sample Population—127 tooth roots in 64 dogs.
Procedure—Radiographs obtained before surgery,
immediately after surgery, and during follow-up
examinations after surgery were evaluated by 2 individuals.
Treatment was considered successful if the
periodontal ligament space was normal and possible
preoperative root resorption, if present, had ceased.
Treatment was considered to show no evidence of
failure if possible preoperative root resorption had
ceased but a preexisting periapical lesion had
remained the same or only decreased in size and not
complete resolved. Treatment was considered to
have failed if a periapical lesion or root resorption
developed subsequent to endodontic treatment, if a
preexisting periapical lesion had increased in size, or
if possible preoperative root resorption appeared to
continue after endodontic treatment.
Results—Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 60 months
(mean, 13 months). Treatment was classified as successful
for 87 (69%) roots, as showing no evidence of
failure for 33 (26%) roots, and as having failed for 7
(6%) roots. The success rate was lower for canine
teeth than for maxillary fourth premolar teeth. Roots
with a preexisting periapical lucency or preexisting
root resorption had lower success rates. The use of
intracanal medication and the method and quality of
obturation were not associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that root canal treatment offers a viable option
for salvage of periodontally sound but endodontically
diseased teeth in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine the effects of stress in cats with feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) by evaluating bladder permeability, sympathetic nervous system function, and urine cortisol:creatinine (C:Cr) ratios during periods of stress and after environmental enrichment.
Animals—13 cats with FIC and 12 healthy cats.
Procedure—Cats subjected to an acute-onset moderate stressor for 8 days received IV injections of fluorescein. Serum fluorescein concentrations were determined and compared with those of controls to evaluate bladder permeability, and urine C:Cr ratios were compared to evaluate function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were analyzed in a subset of cats. After 8 days of moderate stress, cats were moved to an enriched environment, and tests were repeated after 21 days.
Results—Serum fluorescein concentrations were significantly higher in cats with FIC at all time points. In the cats in which plasma catecholamine concentrations were determined, concentrations of dihydroxyphenylalanine, norepinephrine, and dihyroxyphenylglycol were significantly higher in cats with FIC at all time points, whereas no differences in urine C:Cr ratio between groups were observed.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Cats with FIC appeared to have altered bladder permeability, most notably during the period of initial stress. The increase in plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine concentration suggests that there may be stress-induced increase in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in catecholamine synthesis. In contrast, no effects of stress on C:Cr ratios were observed, which suggests there was dissociation between the sympathetic nervous system and HPA-axis responses to stress.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of tooth resorption in dogs and to evaluate whether a classification system for tooth resorption in humans is applicable in this species.
Animals—224 dogs > 1 year old admitted for periodontal treatment or other dental procedures in 2007
Procedures—Full-mouth radiographs of all dogs were reviewed for evidence of tooth resorption. Tooth resorption was classified in accordance with radiographic criteria described for use in humans. Patient signalment and concurrent dental conditions were recorded and tabulated.
Results—Tooth resorption was detected in 120 of 224 (53.6%) dogs and 943 of 8,478 (11.1%) teeth. The classification system for use in humans was applicable in 908 of 943 (96.3%) affected teeth. Tooth resorption was more frequent among older and large-breed dogs; no significant differences were found among sex categories. The 2 most common types of tooth resorption were external replacement resorption (77/224 [34.4%] dogs and 736/8,478 [8.7%] teeth) and external inflammatory resorption (58/224 [25.9%] dogs and 121/8,478 [1.4%] teeth). External cervical root surface resorption was detected in 13 of 224 (5.8%) dogs; external surface resorption was detected in 10 of 224 (4.5%) dogs, and internal inflammatory resorption and internal surface resorption were detected in 9 of 224 (4.0%) and 1 of 224 (0.4%) dogs, respectively. Internal replacement resorption was not detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The classification of tooth resorption in humans was applicable to tooth resorption in dogs. Resorption lesions, in general, and external replacement and external inflammatory resorption, in particular, were frequently detected in dogs.