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To identify risk factors of pets affected by the 1991 Oakland, Calif fire for being lost, found, adopted, or reunited with owners.


Retrospective cohort study.


1,075 cats and 197 dogs affected by the fire and 221 cats and 128 dogs not affected by the fire.


Records compiled from 1991 to 1995 by the Oakland Firestorm Pet Hotline were analyzed.


Peak activity for the hotline was on days 3 and 4 after the fire, but decreased to a low, steady rate by day 21. Many pets were found that had been abandoned or were part of a large free-roaming population that existed at the time of the fire. Many were missing after the fire and presumed killed. The longer owners delayed looking for their pet, the lower the chance of being reunited. Pets wearing collars with the owners' names and addresses had a more than 10-fold chance of being reunited, compared with pets without collars. Increasing odds for adoption of lost pets was associated with their proximity to the fire.

Clinical Implications

Hotlines set up after sudden impact disasters, such as the Oakland Firestorm Pet Hotline, will probably register primarily abandoned animals. Reunion of pets with their owners appears to be most likely for those that receive an overall better level of care than pets found at other times. Adoption of pets after this disaster was primarily by the person who found that animal and principally resulted when the pet was found close to the disaster area. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:504-511)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To document gross and microscopic anatomic features of the collateral ligaments of the canine cubital joint and to determine their structural and material properties.


37 canine cadavers.


After measurement of ligament dimensions, the bone-collateral ligament-bone specimens were loaded in tension until failure, using a materials testing machine. Data from the load-displacement curves were used to determine the structural and material properties of the ligaments. Gross anatomic features were studied during dissection of the specimens from the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL), which then were saved for microscopic examination.


Failure load and stiffness values for the LCL were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those for the MCL. The LCL had obvious cranial and caudal components that attached to the radius and ulna, respectively. The MCL also had cranial and caudal components; however, the cranial component was indistinct, appearing only as a slight thickening of the joint capsule. The caudal component was more prominent; as it extended distad, it had minor attachments to the interosseous and annular ligaments and attached principally on the caudolateral surface of the proximal portion of the radius. The caudal component did not have substantial attachment to the ulna in any of the specimens studied. Both ligaments were composed of closely packed, parallel fascicles of dense collagen, with scant amounts of fibrocartilage and no detectable elastin.


Gross anatomic features of the collateral ligaments of the canine cubital joint indicate that they provide principal structural support to the joint; microscopic anatomic features are typical of other ligaments. The LCL is stronger and stiffer than the MCL; however, their material properties are similar.

Clinical Relevance

Knowledge of the sites of attachment of collateral ligament components is essential for surgeons undertaking repair or reconstruction of these structures. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:461–466)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine clinical outcome of permanent tracheostomy in cats with upper airway obstruction.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—21 cats.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on history, signalment, clinical signs, results of preoperative clinicopathologic testing, cause of upper airway obstruction, surgical procedure, postoperative complications, and outcome.

Results—Causes of upper airway obstruction included neoplasia (squamous cell carcinoma [n = 6] or malignant lymphoma [2]), inflammatory laryngeal disease (5), laryngeal paralysis (4), trauma (3), and a laryngeal mass of unknown cause (1). Fourteen cats had dyspnea in the immediate postoperative period; dyspnea most often resulted from mucous plugs at the stoma or elsewhere in the respiratory tract. Eleven cats died, including 6 cats that died while hospitalized after surgery and 5 cats that died after discharge; 7 cats were eu-thanatized, most often because of progression of neoplasia; and 2 were still alive at the time of the study. The remaining cat was lost to follow-up after discharge from the hospital. Overall, median survival time for the 20 cats for which information was available was 20.5 days (range, 1 day to 5 years). Cats that underwent permanent tracheostomy because of inflammatory laryngeal disease were 6.61 times as likely to die as cats that underwent permanent tracheostomy for any other reason.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that permanent tracheostomy was an uncommon procedure in cats with upper airway obstruction that was associated with high complication and mortality rates.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association