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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To estimate the proportion of veterinarians working with feline patients in private practices who do or do not perform onychectomy and assess attitudes regarding and practices related to onychectomy in a large population of veterinary practitioners.

DESIGN Anonymous online survey.

SAMPLE 3,441 veterinarians.

PROCEDURES An online survey was provided to members of the Veterinary Information Network from June 18, 2014, through July 9, 2014. Descriptive statistics and frequency distributions for applicable response types were calculated, and Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to compare responses to onychectomy-related opinion questions between respondents who indicated they did or did not perform the procedure. Not all respondents answered every question.

RESULTS 2,503 of 3,441 (72.7%) survey respondents reported performing onychectomy, and 827 (24.0%) indicated they did not; 1,534 of 2,498 (61.4%) performing the procedure reported a frequency of < 1 onychectomy/month. Most (2,256/3,023 [74.6%]) respondents who performed onychectomy indicated that they recommended nonsurgical alternatives. Surgical techniques and approaches to analgesia varied, with use of a scalpel only (1,046/1,722 [60.7%]) and perioperative administration of injectable opioids (1,933/2,482 [77.9%]) most commonly reported. Responses to opinion questions in regard to the degree of pain associated with onychectomy and recovery; whether declawing is a form of mutilation, is necessary in some cats for behavioral reasons, or is a necessary alternative to euthanasia in some cats; and whether state organizations should support a legislative ban on onychectomy differed significantly between respondents who did and did not perform the procedure.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Onychectomy is a controversial topic, and this was reflected in survey results. In this sample, most veterinarians performing the procedure reported that they did so infrequently, and most offered nonsurgical alternatives to the procedure.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure cardiac output in healthy female anesthetized dogs by use of lithium dilution cardiac output and determine whether changes in mean arterial pressure were caused by changes in cardiac output or systemic vascular resistance.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—20 healthy female dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized for ovariohysterectomy. Ten dogs breathed spontaneously throughout anesthesia, and 10 dogs received intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. Cardiovascular and respiratory measurements, including lithium dilution cardiac output, were performed during anesthesia and surgery.

Results—Mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance index were low after induction of anesthesia and just prior to surgery and increased significantly after surgery began. Cardiac index (cardiac output indexed to body surface area) did not change significantly throughout anesthesia and surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provide baseline data for cardiac output and cardiac index measurements during clinical anesthesia and surgery in dogs. Changes in mean arterial pressure do not necessarily reflect corresponding changes in cardiac index. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1419–1423)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of medical errors (specifically, near misses [NMs] and adverse events [AEs]) and their personal and professional impact on veterinarians.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

SAMPLE Members of the Veterinary Information Network (n = 46,481).

PROCEDURES An electronic survey regarding veterinarians' experiences with NMs and AEs was distributed via email to an online veterinary community between September 24 and October 21, 2015. Responses were summarized and compared between genders by means of the χ2 test.

RESULTS 606 veterinarians completed the survey (1.3% response rate). Overall, 447 (73.8%) respondents reported involvement in ≥ 1 NM (n = 389 [64.2%]) or AE (179 [29.5%]). The NMs had a short-term (≤ 1 week) adverse impact on professional life for 68.0% (261/384) of respondents and longer-term negative impact for 36.4% (140/385). The impact on respondents' personal lives was similar (63.6% [245/385] and 33.5% [129/385], respectively). For AEs, these numbers were 84.1% (148/176), 56.2% (99/177), 77.8% (137/176), and 50.6% (89/175), respectively. Both NMs and AEs were more likely to negatively impact female veterinarians than male veterinarians.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These findings suggested that many veterinarians experience emotional distress after a medical error. Support should be provided to mitigate this adverse impact on the wellbeing of veterinarians and, potentially, their future patients.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether infusion of xylazine and ketamine or xylazine and propofol after sevoflurane administration in horses would improve the quality of recovery from anesthesia.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—For each horse, anesthesia was induced by administration of xylazine, diazepam, and ketamine and maintained with sevoflurane for approximately 90 minutes (of which the last 60 minutes were under steady-state conditions) 3 times at 1-week intervals. For 1 anesthetic episode, each horse was allowed to recover from sevoflurane anesthesia; for the other 2 episodes, xylazine and ketamine or xylazine and propofol were infused for 30 or 15 minutes, respectively, after termination of sevoflurane administration. Selected cardiopulmonary variables were measured during anesthesia and recovery. Recovery events were monitored and subjectively scored.

Results—Cardiopulmonary variables differed minimally among treatments, although the xylazine-propofol infusion was associated with greater respiratory depression than was the xylazine-ketamine infusion. Interval from discontinuation of sevoflurane or infusion administration to standing did not differ significantly among treatments, but the number of attempts required to stand successfully was significantly lower after xylazine-propofol infusion, compared with the number of attempts after sevoflurane alone. Scores for recovery from anesthesia were significantly lower (ie, better recovery) after either infusion, compared with scores for sevoflurane administration alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Xylazine-ketamine or xylazine-propofol infusion significantly improved quality of recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. Xylazine-ketamine or xylazine-propofol infusions may be of benefit during recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia in horses for which a smooth recovery is particularly critical. However, oxygenation and ventilation should be monitored carefully.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate perioperative administration of gabapentin as an adjunct for analgesia in dogs undergoing amputation of a forelimb.

Design—Randomized, controlled trial.

Animals—30 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—On the day before surgery, a baseline pain evaluation was performed in each dog by use of multiple pain assessment methods. Dogs then received gabapentin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, once, followed by 5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 3 additional days) or a placebo. On the day of surgery, dogs were anesthetized and forelimb amputation was performed. Fentanyl was infused after surgery for 18 to 24 hours; use of other analgesics was allowed. In-hospital pain evaluations were repeated at intervals for 18 hours after surgery, and owners were asked to evaluate daily their dog's activity, appetite, and wound soreness for the first 3 days after discharge from the hospital. Results were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results—Pain evaluation scores did not differ significantly between gabapentin and placebo groups in the hospital or at home after discharge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—As an adjunct to other analgesics and anesthetics, gabapentin, at the dose and frequency used in this study, did not provide a significant benefit for the management of acute perioperative pain in dogs undergoing forelimb amputation. The small sample size and number of other confounding factors, such as aggressive use of other analgesics, limited the likelihood of detecting a benefit of gabapentin. Other gabapentin doses or dosing regimens warrant further study.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the degree of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing elective castration or ovariohysterectomy (OHE); determine whether an association exists between surgeon experience, incision length, or surgery duration and degree of postoperative pain; and determine whether analgesic treatment decreases expression of postoperative pain behaviors.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—426 client-owned dogs undergoing OHE or castration.

Procedures—Dogs underwent OHE or castration performed by an experienced veterinarian or a fourth-year veterinary student. Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: no perioperative analgesic treatment (n = 44), preoperative administration of morphine (144), preoperative administration of nalbuphine (119), and postoperative administration of ketoprofen (119). Dogs were evaluated while in the hospital before anesthesia and for 4 hours after surgery and once a day at home for 3 days after surgery.

Results—Dogs in all 4 groups had significant increases in overall pain scores after surgery, compared with baseline scores. There were significant differences among groups, with control dogs having significantly higher increases in overall pain scores than dogs in the other groups. Factors that did not influence the frequency or severity of pain-related behaviors included breed, individual hospital, anesthetic induction protocol, surgeon experience, and duration of surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs expressed behaviors suggestive of pain following OHE and castration, that analgesic treatment mitigated the expression of pain-related behaviors, and that surgeon experience and surgery duration did not have any effect on expression of pain-related behaviors.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association